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.. _tblgen-mirpats:
MIR Patterns in TableGen
.. contents::
User's Guide
This section is intended for developers who want to use MIR patterns in their
TableGen files.
This feature is still in active development. This document may become outdated
over time. If you see something that's incorrect, please update it.
Use Cases
MIR patterns are supported in the following places:
* GlobalISel ``GICombineRule``
* GlobalISel ``GICombinePatFrag``
MIR patterns use the DAG datatype in TableGen.
.. code-block:: text
(inst operand0, operand1, ...)
``inst`` must be a def which inherits from ``Instruction`` (e.g. ``G_FADD``),
``Intrinsic`` or ``GICombinePatFrag``.
Operands essentially fall into one of two categories:
* immediates
* untyped, unnamed: ``0``
* untyped, named: ``0:$y``
* typed, unnamed: ``(i32 0)``
* typed, named: ``(i32 0):$y``
* machine operands
* untyped: ``$x``
* typed: ``i32:$x``
* A typed operand always adds an operand type check to the matcher.
* There is a trivial type inference system to propagate types.
* e.g. You only need to use ``i32:$x`` once in any pattern of a
``GICombinePatFrag`` alternative or ``GICombineRule``, then all
other patterns in that rule/alternative can simply use ``$x``
(``i32:$x`` is redundant).
* A named operand's behavior depends on whether the name has been seen before.
* For match patterns, reusing an operand name checks that the operands
are identical (see example 2 below).
* For apply patterns, reusing an operand name simply copies that operand into
the new instruction (see example 2 below).
Operands are ordered just like they would be in a MachineInstr: the defs (outs)
come first, then the uses (ins).
Patterns are generally grouped into another DAG datatype with a dummy operator
such as ``match``, ``apply`` or ``pattern``.
Finally, any DAG datatype in TableGen can be named. This also holds for
patterns. e.g. the following is valid: ``(G_FOO $root, (i32 0):$cst):$mypat``.
This may also be helpful to debug issues. Patterns are *always* named, and if
they don't have a name, an "anonymous" one is given to them. If you're trying
to debug an error related to a MIR pattern, but the error mentions an anonymous
pattern, you can try naming your patterns to see exactly where the issue is.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Pattern Example 1
// Match
// %imp = G_IMPLICIT_DEF
// %root = G_MUL %x, %imp
(match (G_IMPLICIT_DEF $imp),
(G_MUL $root, $x, $imp))
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Pattern Example 2
// using $x twice here checks that the operand 1 and 2 of the G_AND are
// identical.
(match (G_AND $root, $x, $x))
// using $x again here copies operand 1 from G_AND into the new inst.
(apply (COPY $root, $x))
Subclasses of ``ValueType`` are valid types, e.g. ``i32``.
``GITypeOf<"$x">`` is a ``GISpecialType`` that allows for the creation of a
register or immediate with the same type as another (register) operand.
* An operand name as a string, prefixed by ``$``.
* Can only appear in an 'apply' pattern.
* The operand name used must appear in the 'match' pattern of the
same ``GICombineRule``.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example: Immediate
def mul_by_neg_one: GICombineRule <
(defs root:$root),
(match (G_MUL $dst, $x, -1)),
(apply (G_SUB $dst, (GITypeOf<"$x"> 0), $x))
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example: Temp Reg
def Test0 : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FMUL $dst, $src, -1)),
(apply (G_FSUB $dst, $src, $tmp),
(G_FNEG GITypeOf<"$dst">:$tmp, $src))>;
Builtin Operations
MIR Patterns also offer builtin operations, also called "builtin instructions".
They offer some powerful features that would otherwise require use of C++ code.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Usage
(apply (GIReplaceReg $old, $new))
* ``$old`` (out) register defined by a matched instruction
* ``$new`` (in) register
* Can only appear in an 'apply' pattern.
* If both old/new are operands of matched instructions,
``canReplaceReg`` is checked before applying the rule.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Usage
(apply (GIEraseRoot))
* Can only appear as the only pattern of an 'apply' pattern list.
* The root cannot have any output operands.
* The root must be a CodeGenInstruction
Instruction Flags
MIR Patterns support both matching & writing ``MIFlags``.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example
def Test : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src, (MIFlags FmNoNans, FmNoInfs))),
(apply (G_BAR $dst, $src, (MIFlags FmReassoc)))>;
In ``apply`` patterns, we also support referring to a matched instruction to
"take" its MIFlags.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example
; We match NoNans/NoInfs, but $zext may have more flags.
; Copy them all into the output instruction, and set Reassoc on the output inst.
def TestCpyFlags : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src, (MIFlags FmNoNans, FmNoInfs)):$zext),
(apply (G_BAR $dst, $src, (MIFlags $zext, FmReassoc)))>;
The ``not`` operator can be used to check that a flag is NOT present
on a matched instruction, and to remove a flag from a generated instruction.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example
; We match NoInfs but we don't want NoNans/Reassoc to be set. $zext may have more flags.
; Copy them all into the output instruction but remove NoInfs on the output inst.
def TestNot : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src, (MIFlags FmNoInfs, (not FmNoNans, FmReassoc))):$zext),
(apply (G_BAR $dst, $src, (MIFlags $zext, (not FmNoInfs))))>;
This a non-exhaustive list of known issues with MIR patterns at this time.
* Using ``GICombinePatFrag`` within another ``GICombinePatFrag`` is not
* ``GICombinePatFrag`` can only have a single root.
* Instructions with multiple defs cannot be the root of a ``GICombinePatFrag``.
* Using ``GICombinePatFrag`` in the ``apply`` pattern of a ``GICombineRule``
is not supported.
* We cannot rewrite a matched instruction other than the root.
* Matching/creating a (CImm) immediate >64 bits is not supported
(see comment in ``GIM_CheckConstantInt``)
* There is currently no way to constrain two register/immediate types to
match. e.g. if a pattern needs to work on both i32 and i64, you either
need to leave it untyped and check the type in C++, or duplicate the
MIR patterns can appear in the ``match`` or ``apply`` patterns of a
The ``root`` of the rule can either be a def of an instruction, or a
named pattern. The latter is helpful when the instruction you want
to match has no defs. The former is generally preferred because
it's less verbose.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Combine Rule root is a def
// Fold x op 1 -> x
def right_identity_one: GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_MUL $dst, $x, 1)),
// Note: Patterns always need to create something, we can't just replace $dst with $x, so we need a COPY.
(apply (COPY $dst, $x))
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Combine Rule root is a named pattern
def Foo : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$root),
(match (G_ZEXT $tmp, (i32 0)),
(G_STORE $tmp, $ptr):$root),
(apply (G_STORE (i32 0), $ptr):$root)>;
Combine Rules also allow mixing C++ code with MIR patterns, so that you
may perform additional checks when matching, or run additional code after
rewriting a pattern.
The following expansions are available for MIR patterns:
* operand names (``MachineOperand &``)
* pattern names (``MachineInstr *`` for ``match``,
``MachineInstrBuilder &`` for apply)
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example C++ Expansions
def Foo : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$root),
(match (G_ZEXT $root, $src):$mi),
(apply "foobar(${root}.getReg(), ${src}.getReg(), ${mi}->hasImplicitDef())")>;
Common Pattern #1: Replace a Register with Another
The 'apply' pattern must always redefine all operands defined by the match root.
Sometimes, we do not need to create instructions, simply replace a def with
another matched register. The ``GIReplaceReg`` builtin can do just that.
.. code-block:: text
def Foo : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FNEG $tmp, $src), (G_FNEG $dst, $tmp)),
(apply (GIReplaceReg $dst, $src))>;
This also works if the replacement register is a temporary register from the
``apply`` pattern.
.. code-block:: text
def ReplaceTemp : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$a),
(match (G_BUILD_VECTOR $tmp, $x, $y),
(G_UNMERGE_VALUES $a, $b, $tmp)),
(apply (G_UNMERGE_VALUES $a, i32:$new, $y),
(GIReplaceReg $b, $new))>
Common Pattern #2: Erasing a Def-less Root
If we simply want to erase a def-less match root, we can use the
``GIEraseRoot`` builtin.
.. code-block:: text
def Foo : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$mi),
(match (G_STORE $a, $b):$mi),
(apply (GIEraseRoot))>;
Common Pattern #3: Emitting a Constant Value
When an immediate operand appears in an 'apply' pattern, the behavior
depends on whether it's typed or not.
* If the immediate is typed, ``MachineIRBuilder::buildConstant`` is used
to create a ``G_CONSTANT``. A ``G_BUILD_VECTOR`` will be used for vectors.
* If the immediate is untyped, a simple immediate is added
There is of course a special case for ``G_CONSTANT``. Immediates for
``G_CONSTANT`` must always be typed, and a CImm is added
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Constant Emission Examples:
// Example output:
// %0 = G_CONSTANT i32 0
// %dst = COPY %0
def Foo : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src)),
(apply (COPY $dst, (i32 0)))>;
// Example output:
// %dst = COPY 0
// Note that this would be ill-formed because COPY
// expects a register operand!
def Bar : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src)),
(apply (COPY $dst, (i32 0)))>;
// Example output:
// %dst = G_CONSTANT i32 0
def Bux : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (G_FOO $dst, $src)),
(apply (G_CONSTANT $dst, (i32 0)))>;
``GICombinePatFrag`` is an equivalent of ``PatFrags`` for MIR patterns.
They have two main usecases:
* Reduce repetition by creating a ``GICombinePatFrag`` for common
patterns (see example 1).
* Implicitly duplicate a CombineRule for multiple variants of a
pattern (see example 2).
A ``GICombinePatFrag`` is composed of three elements:
* zero or more ``in`` (def) parameter
* zero or more ``out`` parameter
* A list of MIR patterns that can match.
* When a ``GICombinePatFrag`` is used within a pattern, the pattern is
cloned once for each alternative that can match.
Parameters can have the following types:
* ``gi_mo``, which is the implicit default (no type = ``gi_mo``).
* Refers to any operand of an instruction (register, BB ref, imm, etc.).
* Can be used in both ``in`` and ``out`` parameters.
* Users of the PatFrag can only use an operand name for this
parameter (e.g. ``(my_pat_frag $foo)``).
* ``root``
* This is identical to ``gi_mo``.
* Can only be used in ``out`` parameters to declare the root of the
* Non-empty ``out`` parameter lists must always have exactly one ``root``.
* ``gi_imm``
* Refers to an (potentially typed) immediate.
* Can only be used in ``in`` parameters.
* Users of the PatFrag can only use an immediate for this parameter
(e.g. ``(my_pat_frag 0)`` or ``(my_pat_frag (i32 0))``)
``out`` operands can only be empty if the ``GICombinePatFrag`` only contains
C++ code. If the fragment contains instruction patterns, it has to have at
least one ``out`` operand of type ``root``.
``in`` operands are less restricted, but there is one important concept to
remember: you can pass "unbound" operand names, but only if the
``GICombinePatFrag`` binds it. See example 3 below.
``GICombinePatFrag`` are used just like any other instructions.
Note that the ``out`` operands are defs, so they come first in the list
of operands.
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example 1: Reduce Repetition
def zext_cst : GICombinePatFrag<(outs root:$dst, $cst), (ins gi_imm:$val),
[(pattern (G_CONSTANT $cst, $val),
(G_ZEXT $dst, $cst))]
def foo_to_impdef : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (zext_cst $y, $cst, (i32 0))
(G_FOO $dst, $y)),
(apply (G_IMPLICIT_DEF $dst))>;
def store_ext_zero : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$root),
(match (zext_cst $y, $cst, (i32 0))
(G_STORE $y, $ptr):$root),
(apply (G_STORE $cst, $ptr):$root)>;
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example 2: Generate Multiple Rules at Once
// Fold (freeze (freeze x)) -> (freeze x).
// Fold (fabs (fabs x)) -> (fabs x).
// Fold (fcanonicalize (fcanonicalize x)) -> (fcanonicalize x).
def idempotent_prop_frags : GICombinePatFrag<(outs root:$dst, $src), (ins),
(pattern (G_FREEZE $dst, $src), (G_FREEZE $src, $x)),
(pattern (G_FABS $dst, $src), (G_FABS $src, $x)),
(pattern (G_FCANONICALIZE $dst, $src), (G_FCANONICALIZE $src, $x))
def idempotent_prop : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (idempotent_prop_frags $dst, $src)),
(apply (COPY $dst, $src))>;
.. code-block:: text
:caption: Example 3: Unbound Operand Names
// This fragment binds $x to an operand in all of its
// alternative patterns.
def always_binds : GICombinePatFrag<
(outs root:$dst), (ins $x),
(pattern (G_FREEZE $dst, $x)),
(pattern (G_FABS $dst, $x)),
// This fragment does not bind $x to an operand in any
// of its alternative patterns.
def does_not_bind : GICombinePatFrag<
(outs root:$dst), (ins $x),
(pattern (G_FREEZE $dst, $x)), // binds $x
(pattern (G_FOO $dst (i32 0))), // does not bind $x
(pattern "return myCheck(${x}.getReg())"), // does not bind $x
// Here we pass $x, which is unbound, to always_binds.
// This works because if $x is unbound, always_binds will bind it for us.
def test0 : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (always_binds $dst, $x)),
(apply (COPY $dst, $x))>;
// Here we pass $x, which is unbound, to does_not_bind.
// This cannot work because $x may not have been initialized in 'apply'.
// error: operand 'x' (for parameter 'src' of 'does_not_bind') cannot be unbound
def test1 : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (does_not_bind $dst, $x)),
(apply (COPY $dst, $x))>;
// Here we pass $x, which is bound, to does_not_bind.
// This is fine because $x will always be bound when emitting does_not_bind
def test2 : GICombineRule<
(defs root:$dst),
(match (does_not_bind $tmp, $x)
(G_MUL $dst, $x, $tmp)),
(apply (COPY $dst, $x))>;