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//===-- llvm-dwarfdump.cpp - Debug info dumping utility for llvm ----------===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// This program is a utility that works like "dwarfdump".
#include "llvm/ADT/STLExtras.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/StringSet.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/Triple.h"
#include "llvm/DebugInfo/DIContext.h"
#include "llvm/DebugInfo/DWARF/DWARFContext.h"
#include "llvm/Object/Archive.h"
#include "llvm/Object/MachOUniversal.h"
#include "llvm/Object/ObjectFile.h"
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Format.h"
#include "llvm/Support/InitLLVM.h"
#include "llvm/Support/MemoryBuffer.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Path.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Regex.h"
#include "llvm/Support/TargetSelect.h"
#include "llvm/Support/ToolOutputFile.h"
#include "llvm/Support/WithColor.h"
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
using namespace llvm;
using namespace object;
/// Parser for options that take an optional offest argument.
/// @{
struct OffsetOption {
uint64_t Val = 0;
bool HasValue = false;
bool IsRequested = false;
namespace llvm {
namespace cl {
template <>
class parser<OffsetOption> final : public basic_parser<OffsetOption> {
parser(Option &O) : basic_parser(O) {}
/// Return true on error.
bool parse(Option &O, StringRef ArgName, StringRef Arg, OffsetOption &Val) {
if (Arg == "") {
Val.Val = 0;
Val.HasValue = false;
Val.IsRequested = true;
return false;
if (Arg.getAsInteger(0, Val.Val))
return O.error("'" + Arg + "' value invalid for integer argument!");
Val.HasValue = true;
Val.IsRequested = true;
return false;
enum ValueExpected getValueExpectedFlagDefault() const {
return ValueOptional;
void printOptionInfo(const Option &O, size_t GlobalWidth) const {
outs() << " -" << O.ArgStr;
Option::printHelpStr(O.HelpStr, GlobalWidth, getOptionWidth(O));
void printOptionDiff(const Option &O, OffsetOption V, OptVal Default,
size_t GlobalWidth) const {
printOptionName(O, GlobalWidth);
outs() << "[=offset]";
// An out-of-line virtual method to provide a 'home' for this class.
void anchor() override {};
} // cl
} // llvm
/// @}
/// Command line options.
/// @{
namespace {
using namespace cl;
OptionCategory DwarfDumpCategory("Specific Options");
static opt<bool> Help("h", desc("Alias for -help"), Hidden,
static list<std::string>
InputFilenames(Positional, desc("<input object files or .dSYM bundles>"),
ZeroOrMore, cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
cl::OptionCategory SectionCategory("Section-specific Dump Options",
"These control which sections are dumped. "
"Where applicable these parameters take an "
"optional =<offset> argument to dump only "
"the entry at the specified offset.");
static opt<bool> DumpAll("all", desc("Dump all debug info sections"),
static alias DumpAllAlias("a", desc("Alias for -all"), aliasopt(DumpAll));
// Options for dumping specific sections.
static unsigned DumpType = DIDT_Null;
static std::array<llvm::Optional<uint64_t>, (unsigned)DIDT_ID_Count>
static opt<OffsetOption> Dump##ENUM_NAME( \
CMDLINE_NAME, desc("Dump the " ELF_NAME " section"), \
#include "llvm/BinaryFormat/Dwarf.def"
static alias DumpDebugFrameAlias("eh-frame", desc("Alias for -debug-frame"),
NotHidden, cat(SectionCategory),
static list<std::string>
desc("Dump debug information for the specified CPU "
"architecture only. Architectures may be specified by "
"name or by number. This option can be specified "
"multiple times, once for each desired architecture."),
static opt<bool>
desc("Emit diff-friendly output by omitting offsets and addresses."),
static list<std::string>
desc("Search for the exact match for <name> in the accelerator tables "
"and print the matching debug information entries. When no "
"accelerator tables are available, the slower but more complete "
"-name option can be used instead."),
value_desc("name"), cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
static alias FindAlias("f", desc("Alias for -find."), aliasopt(Find));
static opt<bool>
desc("Ignore case distinctions in when searching by name."),
value_desc("i"), cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
static alias IgnoreCaseAlias("i", desc("Alias for -ignore-case."),
static list<std::string> Name(
desc("Find and print all debug info entries whose name (DW_AT_name "
"attribute) matches the exact text in <pattern>. When used with the "
"the -regex option <pattern> is interpreted as a regular expression."),
value_desc("pattern"), cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
static alias NameAlias("n", desc("Alias for -name"), aliasopt(Name));
static opt<unsigned long long> Lookup("lookup",
desc("Lookup <address> in the debug information and print out any "
"available file, function, block and line table details."),
value_desc("address"), cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
static opt<std::string>
OutputFilename("out-file", cl::init("-"),
cl::desc("Redirect output to the specified file."),
static alias OutputFilenameAlias("o", desc("Alias for -out-file."),
static opt<bool>
desc("Treat any <pattern> strings as regular expressions when "
"searching instead of just as an exact string match."),
static alias RegexAlias("x", desc("Alias for -regex"), aliasopt(UseRegex));
static opt<bool>
desc("Show a debug info entry's children when selectively "
"printing with the =<offset> option."),
static alias ShowChildrenAlias("c", desc("Alias for -show-children."),
static opt<bool>
desc("Show a debug info entry's parents when selectively "
"printing with the =<offset> option."),
static alias ShowParentsAlias("p", desc("Alias for -show-parents."),
static opt<bool>
desc("Show DWARF form types after the DWARF attribute types."),
static alias ShowFormAlias("F", desc("Alias for -show-form."),
aliasopt(ShowForm), cat(DwarfDumpCategory));
static opt<unsigned> RecurseDepth(
desc("Only recurse to a depth of N when displaying debug info entries."),
cat(DwarfDumpCategory), init(-1U), value_desc("N"));
static alias RecurseDepthAlias("r", desc("Alias for -recurse-depth."),
static opt<bool>
desc("Abbreviate the description of type unit entries."),
static cl::opt<bool>
cl::desc("Emit JSON-formatted debug info quality metrics."),
static opt<bool> Verify("verify", desc("Verify the DWARF debug info."),
static opt<bool> Quiet("quiet", desc("Use with -verify to not emit to STDOUT."),
static opt<bool> DumpUUID("uuid", desc("Show the UUID for each architecture."),
static alias DumpUUIDAlias("u", desc("Alias for -uuid."), aliasopt(DumpUUID));
static opt<bool> Verbose("verbose",
desc("Print more low-level encoding details."),
static alias VerboseAlias("v", desc("Alias for -verbose."), aliasopt(Verbose),
} // namespace
/// @}
static void error(StringRef Prefix, std::error_code EC) {
if (!EC)
WithColor::error() << Prefix << ": " << EC.message() << "\n";
static DIDumpOptions getDumpOpts() {
DIDumpOptions DumpOpts;
DumpOpts.DumpType = DumpType;
DumpOpts.RecurseDepth = RecurseDepth;
DumpOpts.ShowAddresses = !Diff;
DumpOpts.ShowChildren = ShowChildren;
DumpOpts.ShowParents = ShowParents;
DumpOpts.ShowForm = ShowForm;
DumpOpts.SummarizeTypes = SummarizeTypes;
DumpOpts.Verbose = Verbose;
// In -verify mode, print DIEs without children in error messages.
if (Verify)
return DumpOpts.noImplicitRecursion();
return DumpOpts;
static uint32_t getCPUType(MachOObjectFile &MachO) {
if (MachO.is64Bit())
return MachO.getHeader64().cputype;
return MachO.getHeader().cputype;
/// Return true if the object file has not been filtered by an --arch option.
static bool filterArch(ObjectFile &Obj) {
if (ArchFilters.empty())
return true;
if (auto *MachO = dyn_cast<MachOObjectFile>(&Obj)) {
for (auto Arch : ArchFilters) {
// Match architecture number.
unsigned Value;
if (!StringRef(Arch).getAsInteger(0, Value))
if (Value == getCPUType(*MachO))
return true;
// Match as name.
if (MachO->getArchTriple().getArch() == Triple(Arch).getArch())
return true;
return false;
using HandlerFn = std::function<bool(ObjectFile &, DWARFContext &DICtx, Twine,
raw_ostream &)>;
/// Print only DIEs that have a certain name.
static bool filterByName(const StringSet<> &Names, DWARFDie Die,
StringRef NameRef, raw_ostream &OS) {
std::string Name =
(IgnoreCase && !UseRegex) ? NameRef.lower() : NameRef.str();
if (UseRegex) {
// Match regular expression.
for (auto Pattern : Names.keys()) {
Regex RE(Pattern, IgnoreCase ? Regex::IgnoreCase : Regex::NoFlags);
std::string Error;
if (!RE.isValid(Error)) {
errs() << "error in regular expression: " << Error << "\n";
if (RE.match(Name)) {
Die.dump(OS, 0, getDumpOpts());
return true;
} else if (Names.count(Name)) {
// Match full text.
Die.dump(OS, 0, getDumpOpts());
return true;
return false;
/// Print only DIEs that have a certain name.
static void filterByName(const StringSet<> &Names,
DWARFContext::unit_iterator_range CUs,
raw_ostream &OS) {
for (const auto &CU : CUs)
for (const auto &Entry : CU->dies()) {
DWARFDie Die = {CU.get(), &Entry};
if (const char *Name = Die.getName(DINameKind::ShortName))
if (filterByName(Names, Die, Name, OS))
if (const char *Name = Die.getName(DINameKind::LinkageName))
filterByName(Names, Die, Name, OS);
static void getDies(DWARFContext &DICtx, const AppleAcceleratorTable &Accel,
StringRef Name, SmallVectorImpl<DWARFDie> &Dies) {
for (const auto &Entry : Accel.equal_range(Name)) {
if (llvm::Optional<uint64_t> Off = Entry.getDIESectionOffset()) {
if (DWARFDie Die = DICtx.getDIEForOffset(*Off))
static DWARFDie toDie(const DWARFDebugNames::Entry &Entry,
DWARFContext &DICtx) {
llvm::Optional<uint64_t> CUOff = Entry.getCUOffset();
llvm::Optional<uint64_t> Off = Entry.getDIEUnitOffset();
if (!CUOff || !Off)
return DWARFDie();
DWARFCompileUnit *CU = DICtx.getCompileUnitForOffset(*CUOff);
if (!CU)
return DWARFDie();
if (llvm::Optional<uint64_t> DWOId = CU->getDWOId()) {
// This is a skeleton unit. Look up the DIE in the DWO unit.
CU = DICtx.getDWOCompileUnitForHash(*DWOId);
if (!CU)
return DWARFDie();
return CU->getDIEForOffset(CU->getOffset() + *Off);
static void getDies(DWARFContext &DICtx, const DWARFDebugNames &Accel,
StringRef Name, SmallVectorImpl<DWARFDie> &Dies) {
for (const auto &Entry : Accel.equal_range(Name)) {
if (DWARFDie Die = toDie(Entry, DICtx))
/// Print only DIEs that have a certain name.
static void filterByAccelName(ArrayRef<std::string> Names, DWARFContext &DICtx,
raw_ostream &OS) {
SmallVector<DWARFDie, 4> Dies;
for (const auto &Name : Names) {
getDies(DICtx, DICtx.getAppleNames(), Name, Dies);
getDies(DICtx, DICtx.getAppleTypes(), Name, Dies);
getDies(DICtx, DICtx.getAppleNamespaces(), Name, Dies);
getDies(DICtx, DICtx.getDebugNames(), Name, Dies);
Dies.erase(std::unique(Dies.begin(), Dies.end()), Dies.end());
for (DWARFDie Die : Dies)
Die.dump(OS, 0, getDumpOpts());
/// Handle the --lookup option and dump the DIEs and line info for the given
/// address.
/// TODO: specified Address for --lookup option could relate for several
/// different sections(in case not-linked object file). llvm-dwarfdump
/// need to do something with this: extend lookup option with section
/// information or probably display all matched entries, or something else...
static bool lookup(ObjectFile &Obj, DWARFContext &DICtx, uint64_t Address,
raw_ostream &OS) {
auto DIEsForAddr = DICtx.getDIEsForAddress(Lookup);
if (!DIEsForAddr)
return false;
DIDumpOptions DumpOpts = getDumpOpts();
DumpOpts.RecurseDepth = 0;
DIEsForAddr.CompileUnit->dump(OS, DumpOpts);
if (DIEsForAddr.FunctionDIE) {
DIEsForAddr.FunctionDIE.dump(OS, 2, DumpOpts);
if (DIEsForAddr.BlockDIE)
DIEsForAddr.BlockDIE.dump(OS, 4, DumpOpts);
// TODO: it is neccessary to set proper SectionIndex here.
// object::SectionedAddress::UndefSection works for only absolute addresses.
if (DILineInfo LineInfo = DICtx.getLineInfoForAddress(
{Lookup, object::SectionedAddress::UndefSection}))
return true;
bool collectStatsForObjectFile(ObjectFile &Obj, DWARFContext &DICtx,
Twine Filename, raw_ostream &OS);
static bool dumpObjectFile(ObjectFile &Obj, DWARFContext &DICtx, Twine Filename,
raw_ostream &OS) {
logAllUnhandledErrors(DICtx.loadRegisterInfo(Obj), errs(),
Filename.str() + ": ");
// The UUID dump already contains all the same information.
if (!(DumpType & DIDT_UUID) || DumpType == DIDT_All)
OS << Filename << ":\tfile format " << Obj.getFileFormatName() << '\n';
// Handle the --lookup option.
if (Lookup)
return lookup(Obj, DICtx, Lookup, OS);
// Handle the --name option.
if (!Name.empty()) {
StringSet<> Names;
for (auto name : Name)
Names.insert((IgnoreCase && !UseRegex) ? StringRef(name).lower() : name);
filterByName(Names, DICtx.normal_units(), OS);
filterByName(Names, DICtx.dwo_units(), OS);
return true;
// Handle the --find option and lower it to --debug-info=<offset>.
if (!Find.empty()) {
filterByAccelName(Find, DICtx, OS);
return true;
// Dump the complete DWARF structure.
DICtx.dump(OS, getDumpOpts(), DumpOffsets);
return true;
static bool verifyObjectFile(ObjectFile &Obj, DWARFContext &DICtx,
Twine Filename, raw_ostream &OS) {
// Verify the DWARF and exit with non-zero exit status if verification
// fails.
raw_ostream &stream = Quiet ? nulls() : OS;
stream << "Verifying " << Filename.str() << ":\tfile format "
<< Obj.getFileFormatName() << "\n";
bool Result = DICtx.verify(stream, getDumpOpts());
if (Result)
stream << "No errors.\n";
stream << "Errors detected.\n";
return Result;
static bool handleBuffer(StringRef Filename, MemoryBufferRef Buffer,
HandlerFn HandleObj, raw_ostream &OS);
static bool handleArchive(StringRef Filename, Archive &Arch,
HandlerFn HandleObj, raw_ostream &OS) {
bool Result = true;
Error Err = Error::success();
for (auto Child : Arch.children(Err)) {
auto BuffOrErr = Child.getMemoryBufferRef();
error(Filename, errorToErrorCode(BuffOrErr.takeError()));
auto NameOrErr = Child.getName();
error(Filename, errorToErrorCode(NameOrErr.takeError()));
std::string Name = (Filename + "(" + NameOrErr.get() + ")").str();
Result &= handleBuffer(Name, BuffOrErr.get(), HandleObj, OS);
error(Filename, errorToErrorCode(std::move(Err)));
return Result;
static bool handleBuffer(StringRef Filename, MemoryBufferRef Buffer,
HandlerFn HandleObj, raw_ostream &OS) {
Expected<std::unique_ptr<Binary>> BinOrErr = object::createBinary(Buffer);
error(Filename, errorToErrorCode(BinOrErr.takeError()));
bool Result = true;
if (auto *Obj = dyn_cast<ObjectFile>(BinOrErr->get())) {
if (filterArch(*Obj)) {
std::unique_ptr<DWARFContext> DICtx = DWARFContext::create(*Obj);
Result = HandleObj(*Obj, *DICtx, Filename, OS);
else if (auto *Fat = dyn_cast<MachOUniversalBinary>(BinOrErr->get()))
for (auto &ObjForArch : Fat->objects()) {
std::string ObjName =
(Filename + "(" + ObjForArch.getArchFlagName() + ")").str();
if (auto MachOOrErr = ObjForArch.getAsObjectFile()) {
auto &Obj = **MachOOrErr;
if (filterArch(Obj)) {
std::unique_ptr<DWARFContext> DICtx = DWARFContext::create(Obj);
Result &= HandleObj(Obj, *DICtx, ObjName, OS);
} else
if (auto ArchiveOrErr = ObjForArch.getAsArchive()) {
error(ObjName, errorToErrorCode(ArchiveOrErr.takeError()));
Result &= handleArchive(ObjName, *ArchiveOrErr.get(), HandleObj, OS);
} else
else if (auto *Arch = dyn_cast<Archive>(BinOrErr->get()))
Result = handleArchive(Filename, *Arch, HandleObj, OS);
return Result;
static bool handleFile(StringRef Filename, HandlerFn HandleObj,
raw_ostream &OS) {
ErrorOr<std::unique_ptr<MemoryBuffer>> BuffOrErr =
error(Filename, BuffOrErr.getError());
std::unique_ptr<MemoryBuffer> Buffer = std::move(BuffOrErr.get());
return handleBuffer(Filename, *Buffer, HandleObj, OS);
/// If the input path is a .dSYM bundle (as created by the dsymutil tool),
/// replace it with individual entries for each of the object files inside the
/// bundle otherwise return the input path.
static std::vector<std::string> expandBundle(const std::string &InputPath) {
std::vector<std::string> BundlePaths;
SmallString<256> BundlePath(InputPath);
// Normalize input path. This is necessary to accept `bundle.dSYM/`.
// Manually open up the bundle to avoid introducing additional dependencies.
if (sys::fs::is_directory(BundlePath) &&
sys::path::extension(BundlePath) == ".dSYM") {
std::error_code EC;
sys::path::append(BundlePath, "Contents", "Resources", "DWARF");
for (sys::fs::directory_iterator Dir(BundlePath, EC), DirEnd;
Dir != DirEnd && !EC; Dir.increment(EC)) {
const std::string &Path = Dir->path();
sys::fs::file_status Status;
EC = sys::fs::status(Path, Status);
error(Path, EC);
switch (Status.type()) {
case sys::fs::file_type::regular_file:
case sys::fs::file_type::symlink_file:
case sys::fs::file_type::type_unknown:
default: /*ignore*/;
error(BundlePath, EC);
if (!BundlePaths.size())
return BundlePaths;
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
InitLLVM X(argc, argv);
HideUnrelatedOptions({&DwarfDumpCategory, &SectionCategory, &ColorCategory});
argc, argv,
"pretty-print DWARF debug information in object files"
" and debug info archives.\n");
if (Help) {
PrintHelpMessage(/*Hidden =*/false, /*Categorized =*/true);
return 0;
// FIXME: Audit interactions between these two options and make them
// compatible.
if (Diff && Verbose) {
WithColor::error() << "incompatible arguments: specifying both -diff and "
"-verbose is currently not supported";
return 0;
std::error_code EC;
ToolOutputFile OutputFile(OutputFilename, EC, sys::fs::OF_None);
error("Unable to open output file" + OutputFilename, EC);
// Don't remove output file if we exit with an error.
bool OffsetRequested = false;
// Defaults to dumping all sections, unless brief mode is specified in which
// case only the .debug_info section in dumped.
if (Dump##ENUM_NAME.IsRequested) { \
DumpType |= DIDT_##ENUM_NAME; \
if (Dump##ENUM_NAME.HasValue) { \
DumpOffsets[DIDT_ID_##ENUM_NAME] = Dump##ENUM_NAME.Val; \
OffsetRequested = true; \
} \
#include "llvm/BinaryFormat/Dwarf.def"
if (DumpUUID)
DumpType |= DIDT_UUID;
if (DumpAll)
DumpType = DIDT_All;
if (DumpType == DIDT_Null) {
if (Verbose)
DumpType = DIDT_All;
DumpType = DIDT_DebugInfo;
// Unless dumping a specific DIE, default to --show-children.
if (!ShowChildren && !Verify && !OffsetRequested && Name.empty() && Find.empty())
ShowChildren = true;
// Defaults to a.out if no filenames specified.
if (InputFilenames.empty())
// Expand any .dSYM bundles to the individual object files contained therein.
std::vector<std::string> Objects;
for (const auto &F : InputFilenames) {
auto Objs = expandBundle(F);
Objects.insert(Objects.end(), Objs.begin(), Objs.end());
if (Verify) {
// If we encountered errors during verify, exit with a non-zero exit status.
if (!all_of(Objects, [&](std::string Object) {
return handleFile(Object, verifyObjectFile, OutputFile.os());
return 1;
} else if (Statistics)
for (auto Object : Objects)
handleFile(Object, collectStatsForObjectFile, OutputFile.os());
for (auto Object : Objects)
handleFile(Object, dumpObjectFile, OutputFile.os());