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//===--- OptimizedStructLayout.cpp - Optimal data layout algorithm ----------------===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// This file implements the performOptimizedStructLayout interface.
#include "llvm/Support/OptimizedStructLayout.h"
using namespace llvm;
using Field = OptimizedStructLayoutField;
#ifndef NDEBUG
static void checkValidLayout(ArrayRef<Field> Fields, uint64_t Size,
Align MaxAlign) {
uint64_t LastEnd = 0;
Align ComputedMaxAlign;
for (auto &Field : Fields) {
assert(Field.hasFixedOffset() &&
"didn't assign a fixed offset to field");
assert(isAligned(Field.Alignment, Field.Offset) &&
"didn't assign a correctly-aligned offset to field");
assert(Field.Offset >= LastEnd &&
"didn't assign offsets in ascending order");
LastEnd = Field.getEndOffset();
assert(Field.Alignment <= MaxAlign &&
"didn't compute MaxAlign correctly");
ComputedMaxAlign = std::max(Field.Alignment, MaxAlign);
assert(LastEnd == Size && "didn't compute LastEnd correctly");
assert(ComputedMaxAlign == MaxAlign && "didn't compute MaxAlign correctly");
std::pair<uint64_t, Align>
llvm::performOptimizedStructLayout(MutableArrayRef<Field> Fields) {
#ifndef NDEBUG
// Do some simple precondition checks.
bool InFixedPrefix = true;
size_t LastEnd = 0;
for (auto &Field : Fields) {
assert(Field.Size > 0 && "field of zero size");
if (Field.hasFixedOffset()) {
assert(InFixedPrefix &&
"fixed-offset fields are not a strict prefix of array");
assert(LastEnd <= Field.Offset &&
"fixed-offset fields overlap or are not in order");
LastEnd = Field.getEndOffset();
assert(LastEnd > Field.Offset &&
"overflow in fixed-offset end offset");
} else {
InFixedPrefix = false;
// Do an initial pass over the fields.
Align MaxAlign;
// Find the first flexible-offset field, tracking MaxAlign.
auto FirstFlexible = Fields.begin(), E = Fields.end();
while (FirstFlexible != E && FirstFlexible->hasFixedOffset()) {
MaxAlign = std::max(MaxAlign, FirstFlexible->Alignment);
// If there are no flexible fields, we're done.
if (FirstFlexible == E) {
uint64_t Size = 0;
if (!Fields.empty())
Size = Fields.back().getEndOffset();
#ifndef NDEBUG
checkValidLayout(Fields, Size, MaxAlign);
return std::make_pair(Size, MaxAlign);
// Walk over the flexible-offset fields, tracking MaxAlign and
// assigning them a unique number in order of their appearance.
// We'll use this unique number in the comparison below so that
// we can use array_pod_sort, which isn't stable. We won't use it
// past that point.
uintptr_t UniqueNumber = 0;
for (auto I = FirstFlexible; I != E; ++I) {
I->Scratch = reinterpret_cast<void*>(UniqueNumber++);
MaxAlign = std::max(MaxAlign, I->Alignment);
// Sort the flexible elements in order of decreasing alignment,
// then decreasing size, and then the original order as recorded
// in Scratch. The decreasing-size aspect of this is only really
// important if we get into the gap-filling stage below, but it
// doesn't hurt here.
array_pod_sort(FirstFlexible, E,
[](const Field *lhs, const Field *rhs) -> int {
// Decreasing alignment.
if (lhs->Alignment != rhs->Alignment)
return (lhs->Alignment < rhs->Alignment ? 1 : -1);
// Decreasing size.
if (lhs->Size != rhs->Size)
return (lhs->Size < rhs->Size ? 1 : -1);
// Original order.
auto lhsNumber = reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(lhs->Scratch);
auto rhsNumber = reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(rhs->Scratch);
if (lhsNumber != rhsNumber)
return (lhsNumber < rhsNumber ? -1 : 1);
return 0;
// Do a quick check for whether that sort alone has given us a perfect
// layout with no interior padding. This is very common: if the
// fixed-layout fields have no interior padding, and they end at a
// sufficiently-aligned offset for all the flexible-layout fields,
// and the flexible-layout fields all have sizes that are multiples
// of their alignment, then this will reliably trigger.
bool HasPadding = false;
uint64_t LastEnd = 0;
// Walk the fixed-offset fields.
for (auto I = Fields.begin(); I != FirstFlexible; ++I) {
if (LastEnd != I->Offset) {
HasPadding = true;
LastEnd = I->getEndOffset();
// Walk the flexible-offset fields, optimistically assigning fixed
// offsets. Note that we maintain a strict division between the
// fixed-offset and flexible-offset fields, so if we end up
// discovering padding later in this loop, we can just abandon this
// work and we'll ignore the offsets we already assigned.
if (!HasPadding) {
for (auto I = FirstFlexible; I != E; ++I) {
auto Offset = alignTo(LastEnd, I->Alignment);
if (LastEnd != Offset) {
HasPadding = true;
I->Offset = Offset;
LastEnd = I->getEndOffset();
// If we already have a perfect layout, we're done.
if (!HasPadding) {
#ifndef NDEBUG
checkValidLayout(Fields, LastEnd, MaxAlign);
return std::make_pair(LastEnd, MaxAlign);
// The algorithm sketch at this point is as follows.
// Consider the padding gaps between fixed-offset fields in ascending
// order. Let LastEnd be the offset of the first byte following the
// field before the gap, or 0 if the gap is at the beginning of the
// structure. Find the "best" flexible-offset field according to the
// criteria below. If no such field exists, proceed to the next gap.
// Otherwise, add the field at the first properly-aligned offset for
// that field that is >= LastEnd, then update LastEnd and repeat in
// order to fill any remaining gap following that field.
// Next, let LastEnd to be the offset of the first byte following the
// last fixed-offset field, or 0 if there are no fixed-offset fields.
// While there are flexible-offset fields remaining, find the "best"
// flexible-offset field according to the criteria below, add it at
// the first properly-aligned offset for that field that is >= LastEnd,
// and update LastEnd to the first byte following the field.
// The "best" field is chosen by the following criteria, considered
// strictly in order:
// - When filling a gap betweeen fields, the field must fit.
// - A field is preferred if it requires less padding following LastEnd.
// - A field is preferred if it is more aligned.
// - A field is preferred if it is larger.
// - A field is preferred if it appeared earlier in the initial order.
// Minimizing leading padding is a greedy attempt to avoid padding
// entirely. Preferring more-aligned fields is an attempt to eliminate
// stricter constraints earlier, with the idea that weaker alignment
// constraints may be resolvable with less padding elsewhere. These
// These two rules are sufficient to ensure that we get the optimal
// layout in the "C-style" case. Preferring larger fields tends to take
// better advantage of large gaps and may be more likely to have a size
// that's a multiple of a useful alignment. Preferring the initial
// order may help somewhat with locality but is mostly just a way of
// ensuring deterministic output.
// Note that this algorithm does not guarantee a minimal layout. Picking
// a larger object greedily may leave a gap that cannot be filled as
// efficiently. Unfortunately, solving this perfectly is an NP-complete
// problem (by reduction from bin-packing: let B_i be the bin sizes and
// O_j be the object sizes; add fixed-offset fields such that the gaps
// between them have size B_i, and add flexible-offset fields with
// alignment 1 and size O_j; if the layout size is equal to the end of
// the last fixed-layout field, the objects fit in the bins; note that
// this doesn't even require the complexity of alignment).
// The implementation below is essentially just an optimized version of
// scanning the list of remaining fields looking for the best, which
// would be O(n^2). In the worst case, it doesn't improve on that.
// However, in practice it'll just scan the array of alignment bins
// and consider the first few elements from one or two bins. The
// number of bins is bounded by a small constant: alignments are powers
// of two that are vanishingly unlikely to be over 64 and fairly unlikely
// to be over 8. And multiple elements only need to be considered when
// filling a gap between fixed-offset fields, which doesn't happen very
// often. We could use a data structure within bins that optimizes for
// finding the best-sized match, but it would require allocating memory
// and copying data, so it's unlikely to be worthwhile.
// Start by organizing the flexible-offset fields into bins according to
// their alignment. We expect a small enough number of bins that we
// don't care about the asymptotic costs of walking this.
struct AlignmentQueue {
/// The minimum size of anything currently in this queue.
uint64_t MinSize;
/// The head of the queue. A singly-linked list. The order here should
/// be consistent with the earlier sort, i.e. the elements should be
/// monotonically descending in size and otherwise in the original order.
/// We remove the queue from the array as soon as this is empty.
OptimizedStructLayoutField *Head;
/// The alignment requirement of the queue.
Align Alignment;
static Field *getNext(Field *Cur) {
return static_cast<Field *>(Cur->Scratch);
SmallVector<AlignmentQueue, 8> FlexibleFieldsByAlignment;
for (auto I = FirstFlexible; I != E; ) {
auto Head = I;
auto Alignment = I->Alignment;
uint64_t MinSize = I->Size;
auto LastInQueue = I;
for (++I; I != E && I->Alignment == Alignment; ++I) {
LastInQueue->Scratch = I;
LastInQueue = I;
MinSize = std::min(MinSize, I->Size);
LastInQueue->Scratch = nullptr;
FlexibleFieldsByAlignment.push_back({MinSize, Head, Alignment});
#ifndef NDEBUG
// Verify that we set the queues up correctly.
auto checkQueues = [&]{
bool FirstQueue = true;
Align LastQueueAlignment;
for (auto &Queue : FlexibleFieldsByAlignment) {
assert((FirstQueue || Queue.Alignment < LastQueueAlignment) &&
"bins not in order of descending alignment");
LastQueueAlignment = Queue.Alignment;
FirstQueue = false;
assert(Queue.Head && "queue was empty");
uint64_t LastSize = ~(uint64_t)0;
for (auto I = Queue.Head; I; I = Queue.getNext(I)) {
assert(I->Alignment == Queue.Alignment && "bad field in queue");
assert(I->Size <= LastSize && "queue not in descending size order");
LastSize = I->Size;
/// Helper function to remove a field from a queue.
auto spliceFromQueue = [&](AlignmentQueue *Queue, Field *Last, Field *Cur) {
assert(Last ? Queue->getNext(Last) == Cur : Queue->Head == Cur);
// If we're removing Cur from a non-initial position, splice it out
// of the linked list.
if (Last) {
Last->Scratch = Cur->Scratch;
// If Cur was the last field in the list, we need to update MinSize.
// We can just use the last field's size because the list is in
// descending order of size.
if (!Cur->Scratch)
Queue->MinSize = Last->Size;
// Otherwise, replace the head.
} else {
if (auto NewHead = Queue->getNext(Cur))
Queue->Head = NewHead;
// If we just emptied the queue, destroy its bin.
// Do layout into a local array. Doing this in-place on Fields is
// not really feasible.
SmallVector<Field, 16> Layout;
// The offset that we're currently looking to insert at (or after).
uint64_t LastEnd = 0;
// Helper function to splice Cur out of the given queue and add it
// to the layout at the given offset.
auto addToLayout = [&](AlignmentQueue *Queue, Field *Last, Field *Cur,
uint64_t Offset) -> bool {
assert(Offset == alignTo(LastEnd, Cur->Alignment));
// Splice out. This potentially invalidates Queue.
spliceFromQueue(Queue, Last, Cur);
// Add Cur to the layout.
Layout.back().Offset = Offset;
LastEnd = Layout.back().getEndOffset();
// Always return true so that we can be tail-called.
return true;
// Helper function to try to find a field in the given queue that'll
// fit starting at StartOffset but before EndOffset (if present).
// Note that this never fails if EndOffset is not provided.
auto tryAddFillerFromQueue = [&](AlignmentQueue *Queue,
uint64_t StartOffset,
Optional<uint64_t> EndOffset) -> bool {
assert(StartOffset == alignTo(LastEnd, Queue->Alignment));
// Figure out the maximum size that a field can be, and ignore this
// queue if there's nothing in it that small.
auto MaxViableSize =
(EndOffset ? *EndOffset - StartOffset : ~(uint64_t)0);
if (Queue->MinSize > MaxViableSize) return false;
// Find the matching field. Note that this should always find
// something because of the MinSize check above.
for (Field *Cur = Queue->Head, *Last = nullptr; true;
Last = Cur, Cur = Queue->getNext(Cur)) {
assert(Cur && "didn't find a match in queue despite its MinSize");
if (Cur->Size <= MaxViableSize)
return addToLayout(Queue, Last, Cur, StartOffset);
llvm_unreachable("didn't find a match in queue despite its MinSize");
// Helper function to find the "best" flexible-offset field according
// to the criteria described above.
auto tryAddBestField = [&](Optional<uint64_t> BeforeOffset) -> bool {
auto QueueB = FlexibleFieldsByAlignment.begin();
auto QueueE = FlexibleFieldsByAlignment.end();
// Start by looking for the most-aligned queue that doesn't need any
// leading padding after LastEnd.
auto FirstQueueToSearch = QueueB;
for (; FirstQueueToSearch != QueueE; ++FirstQueueToSearch) {
if (isAligned(FirstQueueToSearch->Alignment, LastEnd))
uint64_t Offset = LastEnd;
while (true) {
// Invariant: all of the queues in [FirstQueueToSearch, QueueE)
// require the same initial padding offset.
// Search those queues in descending order of alignment for a
// satisfactory field.
for (auto Queue = FirstQueueToSearch; Queue != QueueE; ++Queue) {
if (tryAddFillerFromQueue(Queue, Offset, BeforeOffset))
return true;
// Okay, we don't need to scan those again.
QueueE = FirstQueueToSearch;
// If we started from the first queue, we're done.
if (FirstQueueToSearch == QueueB)
return false;
// Otherwise, scan backwards to find the most-aligned queue that
// still has minimal leading padding after LastEnd.
Offset = alignTo(LastEnd, FirstQueueToSearch->Alignment);
while (FirstQueueToSearch != QueueB &&
Offset == alignTo(LastEnd, FirstQueueToSearch[-1].Alignment))
// Phase 1: fill the gaps between fixed-offset fields with the best
// flexible-offset field that fits.
for (auto I = Fields.begin(); I != FirstFlexible; ++I) {
while (LastEnd != I->Offset) {
if (!tryAddBestField(I->Offset))
LastEnd = I->getEndOffset();
#ifndef NDEBUG
// Phase 2: repeatedly add the best flexible-offset field until
// they're all gone.
while (!FlexibleFieldsByAlignment.empty()) {
bool Success = tryAddBestField(None);
assert(Success && "didn't find a field with no fixed limit?");
(void) Success;
// Copy the layout back into place.
assert(Layout.size() == Fields.size());
Fields.size() * sizeof(OptimizedStructLayoutField));
#ifndef NDEBUG
// Make a final check that the layout is valid.
checkValidLayout(Fields, LastEnd, MaxAlign);
return std::make_pair(LastEnd, MaxAlign);