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.. _amdgpu-dwarf-extensions-for-heterogeneous-debugging:
********************************************
DWARF Extensions For Heterogeneous Debugging
********************************************
.. contents::
:local:
.. warning::
This document describes **provisional extensions** to DWARF Version 5
[:ref:`DWARF <amdgpu-dwarf-DWARF>`] to support heterogeneous debugging. It is
not currently fully implemented and is subject to change.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-introduction:
Introduction
============
AMD [:ref:`AMD <amdgpu-dwarf-AMD>`] has been working on supporting heterogeneous
computing through the AMD Radeon Open Compute Platform (ROCm) [:ref:`AMD-ROCm
<amdgpu-dwarf-AMD-ROCm>`]. A heterogeneous computing program can be written in a
high level language such as C++ or Fortran with OpenMP pragmas, OpenCL, or HIP
(a portable C++ programming environment for heterogeneous computing [:ref:`HIP
<amdgpu-dwarf-HIP>`]). A heterogeneous compiler and runtime allows a program to
execute on multiple devices within the same native process. Devices could
include CPUs, GPUs, DSPs, FPGAs, or other special purpose accelerators.
Currently HIP programs execute on systems with CPUs and GPUs.
ROCm is fully open sourced and includes contributions to open source projects
such as LLVM for compilation [:ref:`LLVM <amdgpu-dwarf-LLVM>`] and GDB for
debugging [:ref:`GDB <amdgpu-dwarf-GDB>`], as well as collaboration with other
third party projects such as the GCC compiler [:ref:`GCC <amdgpu-dwarf-GCC>`]
and the Perforce TotalView HPC debugger [:ref:`Perforce-TotalView
<amdgpu-dwarf-Perforce-TotalView>`].
To support debugging heterogeneous programs several features that are not
provided by current DWARF Version 5 [:ref:`DWARF <amdgpu-dwarf-DWARF>`] have
been identified. This document contains a collection of extensions to address
providing those features.
The :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-motivation` section describes the issues that are being
addressed for heterogeneous computing. That is followed by the
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-changes-relative-to-dwarf-version-5` section containing the
textual changes for the extensions relative to the DWARF Version 5 standard.
Then there is an :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-examples` section that links to the AMD GPU
specific usage of the extensions that includes an example. Finally, there is a
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-references` section. There are a number of notes included
that raise open questions, or provide alternative approaches considered. The
extensions seek to be general in nature and backwards compatible with DWARF
Version 5. The goal is to be applicable to meeting the needs of any
heterogeneous system and not be vendor or architecture specific.
A fundamental aspect of the extensions is that it allows DWARF expression
location descriptions as stack elements. The extensions are based on DWARF
Version 5 and maintains compatibility with DWARF Version 5. After attempting
several alternatives, the current thinking is that such extensions to DWARF
Version 5 are the simplest and cleanest ways to support debugging optimized GPU
code. It also appears to be generally useful and may be able to address other
reported DWARF issues, as well as being helpful in providing better optimization
support for non-GPU code.
General feedback on these extensions is sought, together with suggestions on how
to clarify, simplify, or organize them. If their is general interest then some
or all of these extensions could be submitted as future DWARF proposals.
We are in the process of modifying LLVM and GDB to support these extensions
which is providing experience and insights. We plan to upstream the changes to
those projects for any final form of the extensions.
The author very much appreciates the input provided so far by many others which
has been incorporated into this current version.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-motivation:
Motivation
==========
This document presents a set of backwards compatible extensions to DWARF Version
5 [:ref:`DWARF <amdgpu-dwarf-DWARF>`] to support heterogeneous debugging.
The remainder of this section provides motivation for each extension in
terms of heterogeneous debugging on commercially available AMD GPU hardware
(AMDGPU). The goal is to add support to the AMD [:ref:`AMD <amdgpu-dwarf-AMD>`]
open source Radeon Open Compute Platform (ROCm) [:ref:`AMD-ROCm
<amdgpu-dwarf-AMD-ROCm>`] which is an implementation of the industry standard
for heterogeneous computing devices defined by the Heterogeneous System
Architecture (HSA) Foundation [:ref:`HSA <amdgpu-dwarf-HSA>`]. ROCm includes the
LLVM compiler [:ref:`LLVM <amdgpu-dwarf-LLVM>`] with upstreamed support for
AMDGPU [:ref:`AMDGPU-LLVM <amdgpu-dwarf-AMDGPU-LLVM>`]. The goal is to also add
the GDB debugger [:ref:`GDB <amdgpu-dwarf-GDB>`] with upstreamed support for
AMDGPU [:ref:`AMD-ROCgdb <amdgpu-dwarf-AMD-ROCgdb>`]. In addition, the goal is
to work with third parties to enable support for AMDGPU debugging in the GCC
compiler [:ref:`GCC <amdgpu-dwarf-GCC>`] and the Perforce TotalView HPC debugger
[:ref:`Perforce-TotalView <amdgpu-dwarf-Perforce-TotalView>`].
However, the extensions are intended to be vendor and architecture neutral. They
are believed to apply to other heterogeneous hardware devices including GPUs,
DSPs, FPGAs, and other specialized hardware. These collectively include similar
characteristics and requirements as AMDGPU devices. Some of the extension can
also apply to traditional CPU hardware that supports large vector registers.
Compilers can map source languages and extensions that describe large scale
parallel execution onto the lanes of the vector registers. This is common in
programming languages used in ML and HPC. The extensions also include improved
support for optimized code on any architecture. Some of the generalizations may
also benefit other issues that have been raised.
The extensions have evolved through collaboration with many individuals and
active prototyping within the GDB debugger and LLVM compiler. Input has also
been very much appreciated from the developers working on the Perforce TotalView
HPC Debugger and GCC compiler.
The AMDGPU has several features that require additional DWARF functionality in
order to support optimized code.
AMDGPU optimized code may spill vector registers to non-global address space
memory, and this spilling may be done only for lanes that are active on entry
to the subprogram. To support this, a location description that can be created
as a masked select is required. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_select_bit_piece``.
Since the active lane mask may be held in a register, a way to get the value
of a register on entry to a subprogram is required. To support this an
operation that returns the caller value of a register as specified by the Call
Frame Information (CFI) is required. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_call_frame_entry_reg``
and :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`.
Current DWARF uses an empty expression to indicate an undefined location
description. Since the masked select composite location description operation
takes more than one location description, it is necessary to have an explicit
way to specify an undefined location description. Otherwise it is not possible
to specify that a particular one of the input location descriptions is
undefined. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_undefined``.
CFI describes restoring callee saved registers that are spilled. Currently CFI
only allows a location description that is a register, memory address, or
implicit location description. AMDGPU optimized code may spill scalar
registers into portions of vector registers. This requires extending CFI to
allow any location description. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`.
The vector registers of the AMDGPU are represented as their full wavefront
size, meaning the wavefront size times the dword size. This reflects the
actual hardware and allows the compiler to generate DWARF for languages that
map a thread to the complete wavefront. It also allows more efficient DWARF to
be generated to describe the CFI as only a single expression is required for
the whole vector register, rather than a separate expression for each lane's
dword of the vector register. It also allows the compiler to produce DWARF
that indexes the vector register if it spills scalar registers into portions
of a vector register.
Since DWARF stack value entries have a base type and AMDGPU registers are a
vector of dwords, the ability to specify that a base type is a vector is
required. See ``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size``.
If the source language is mapped onto the AMDGPU wavefronts in a SIMT manner,
then the variable DWARF location expressions must compute the location for a
single lane of the wavefront. Therefore, a DWARF operation is required to denote
the current lane, much like ``DW_OP_push_object_address`` denotes the current
object. The ``DW_OP_*piece`` operations only allow literal indices. Therefore, a
way to use a computed offset of an arbitrary location description (such as a
vector register) is required. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_push_lane``,
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset``, ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst``, and
``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset``.
If the source language is mapped onto the AMDGPU wavefronts in a SIMT manner
the compiler can use the AMDGPU execution mask register to control which lanes
are active. To describe the conceptual location of non-active lanes a DWARF
expression is needed that can compute a per lane PC. For efficiency, this is
done for the wavefront as a whole. This expression benefits by having a masked
select composite location description operation. This requires an attribute
for source location of each lane. The AMDGPU may update the execution mask for
whole wavefront operations and so needs an attribute that computes the current
active lane mask. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_select_bit_piece``, ``DW_OP_LLVM_extend``,
``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc``, and ``DW_AT_LLVM_active_lane``.
AMDGPU needs to be able to describe addresses that are in different kinds of
memory. Optimized code may need to describe a variable that resides in pieces
that are in different kinds of storage which may include parts of registers,
memory that is in a mixture of memory kinds, implicit values, or be undefined.
DWARF has the concept of segment addresses. However, the segment cannot be
specified within a DWARF expression, which is only able to specify the offset
portion of a segment address. The segment index is only provided by the entity
that specifies the DWARF expression. Therefore, the segment index is a
property that can only be put on complete objects, such as a variable. That
makes it only suitable for describing an entity (such as variable or
subprogram code) that is in a single kind of memory. Therefore, AMDGPU uses
the DWARF concept of address spaces. For example, a variable may be allocated
in a register that is partially spilled to the call stack which is in the
private address space, and partially spilled to the local address space.
DWARF uses the concept of an address in many expression operations but does not
define how it relates to address spaces. For example,
``DW_OP_push_object_address`` pushes the address of an object. Other contexts
implicitly push an address on the stack before evaluating an expression. For
example, the ``DW_AT_use_location`` attribute of the
``DW_TAG_ptr_to_member_type``. The expression that uses the address needs to
do so in a general way and not need to be dependent on the address space of
the address. For example, a pointer to member value may want to be applied to
an object that may reside in any address space.
The number of registers and the cost of memory operations is much higher for
AMDGPU than a typical CPU. The compiler attempts to optimize whole variables
and arrays into registers. Currently DWARF only allows
``DW_OP_push_object_address`` and related operations to work with a global
memory location. To support AMDGPU optimized code it is required to generalize
DWARF to allow any location description to be used. This allows registers, or
composite location descriptions that may be a mixture of memory, registers, or
even implicit values.
DWARF Version 5 does not allow location descriptions to be entries on the
DWARF stack. They can only be the final result of the evaluation of a DWARF
expression. However, by allowing a location description to be a first-class
entry on the DWARF stack it becomes possible to compose expressions containing
both values and location descriptions naturally. It allows objects to be
located in any kind of memory address space, in registers, be implicit values,
be undefined, or a composite of any of these. By extending DWARF carefully,
all existing DWARF expressions can retain their current semantic meaning.
DWARF has implicit conversions that convert from a value that represents an
address in the default address space to a memory location description. This
can be extended to allow a default address space memory location description
to be implicitly converted back to its address value. This allows all DWARF
Version 5 expressions to retain their same meaning, while adding the ability
to explicitly create memory location descriptions in non-default address
spaces and generalizing the power of composite location descriptions to any
kind of location description. See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`.
To allow composition of composite location descriptions, an explicit operation
that indicates the end of the definition of a composite location description
is required. This can be implied if the end of a DWARF expression is reached,
allowing current DWARF expressions to remain legal. See
``DW_OP_LLVM_piece_end``.
The ``DW_OP_plus`` and ``DW_OP_minus`` can be defined to operate on a memory
location description in the default target architecture specific address space
and a generic type value to produce an updated memory location description. This
allows them to continue to be used to offset an address. To generalize
offsetting to any location description, including location descriptions that
describe when bytes are in registers, are implicit, or a composite of these, the
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset``, ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst``, and
``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` offset operations are added. Unlike ``DW_OP_plus``,
``DW_OP_plus_uconst``, and ``DW_OP_minus`` arithmetic operations, these do not
define that integer overflow causes wrap-around. The offset operations can
operate on location storage of any size. For example, implicit location storage
could be any number of bits in size. It is simpler to define offsets that exceed
the size of the location storage as being an evaluation error, than having to
force an implementation to support potentially infinite precision offsets to
allow it to correctly track a series of positive and negative offsets that may
transiently overflow or underflow, but end up in range. This is simple for the
arithmetic operations as they are defined in terms of two's compliment
arithmetic on a base type of a fixed size.
Having the offset operations allows ``DW_OP_push_object_address`` to push a
location description that may be in a register, or be an implicit value, and the
DWARF expression of ``DW_TAG_ptr_to_member_type`` can contain them to offset
within it. ``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` generalizes DWARF to work with bit fields
which is not possible in DWARF Version 5.
The DWARF ``DW_OP_xderef*`` operations allow a value to be converted into an
address of a specified address space which is then read. But it provides no
way to create a memory location description for an address in the non-default
address space. For example, AMDGPU variables can be allocated in the local
address space at a fixed address. It is required to have an operation to
create an address in a specific address space that can be used to define the
location description of the variable. Defining this operation to produce a
location description allows the size of addresses in an address space to be
larger than the generic type. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``.
If the ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` operation had to produce a value
that can be implicitly converted to a memory location description, then it
would be limited to the size of the generic type which matches the size of the
default address space. Its value would be undefined and likely not match any
value in the actual program. By making the result a location description, it
allows a consumer great freedom in how it implements it. The implicit
conversion back to a value can be limited only to the default address space to
maintain compatibility with DWARF Version 5. For other address spaces the
producer can use the new operations that explicitly specify the address space.
``DW_OP_breg*`` treats the register as containing an address in the default
address space. It is required to be able to specify the address space of the
register value. See ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_bregx``.
Similarly, ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` treats its implicit pointer value as
being in the default address space. It is required to be able to specify the
address space of the pointer value. See
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``.
Almost all uses of addresses in DWARF are limited to defining location
descriptions, or to be dereferenced to read memory. The exception is
``DW_CFA_val_offset`` which uses the address to set the value of a register.
By defining the CFA DWARF expression as being a memory location description,
it can maintain what address space it is, and that can be used to convert the
offset address back to an address in that address space. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`.
This approach allows all existing DWARF to have the identical semantics. It
allows the compiler to explicitly specify the address space it is using. For
example, a compiler could choose to access private memory in a swizzled manner
when mapping a source language to a wavefront in a SIMT manner, or to access
it in an unswizzled manner if mapping the same language with the wavefront
being the thread. It also allows the compiler to mix the address space it uses
to access private memory. For example, for SIMT it can still spill entire
vector registers in an unswizzled manner, while using a swizzled private
memory for SIMT variable access. This approach allows memory location
descriptions for different address spaces to be combined using the regular
``DW_OP_*piece`` operations.
Location descriptions are an abstraction of storage, they give freedom to the
consumer on how to implement them. They allow the address space to encode lane
information so they can be used to read memory with only the memory
description and no extra arguments. The same set of operations can operate on
locations independent of their kind of storage. The ``DW_OP_deref*`` therefore
can be used on any storage kind. ``DW_OP_xderef*`` is unnecessary, except to
become a more compact way to convert a non-default address space address
followed by dereferencing it.
In DWARF Version 5 a location description is defined as a single location
description or a location list. A location list is defined as either
effectively an undefined location description or as one or more single
location descriptions to describe an object with multiple places. The
``DW_OP_push_object_address`` and ``DW_OP_call*`` operations can put a
location description on the stack. Furthermore, debugger information entry
attributes such as ``DW_AT_data_member_location``, ``DW_AT_use_location``, and
``DW_AT_vtable_elem_location`` are defined as pushing a location description
on the expression stack before evaluating the expression. However, DWARF
Version 5 only allows the stack to contain values and so only a single memory
address can be on the stack which makes these incapable of handling location
descriptions with multiple places, or places other than memory. Since these
extensions allow the stack to contain location descriptions, the operations are
generalized to support location descriptions that can have multiple places.
This is backwards compatible with DWARF Version 5 and allows objects with
multiple places to be supported. For example, the expression that describes
how to access the field of an object can be evaluated with a location
description that has multiple places and will result in a location description
with multiple places as expected. With this change, the separate DWARF Version
5 sections that described DWARF expressions and location lists have been
unified into a single section that describes DWARF expressions in general.
This unification seems to be a natural consequence and a necessity of allowing
location descriptions to be part of the evaluation stack.
For those familiar with the definition of location descriptions in DWARF Version
5, the definitions in these extensions are presented differently, but does
in fact define the same concept with the same fundamental semantics. However,
it does so in a way that allows the concept to extend to support address
spaces, bit addressing, the ability for composite location descriptions to be
composed of any kind of location description, and the ability to support
objects located at multiple places. Collectively these changes expand the set
of processors that can be supported and improves support for optimized code.
Several approaches were considered, and the one presented appears to be the
cleanest and offers the greatest improvement of DWARF's ability to support
optimized code. Examining the GDB debugger and LLVM compiler, it appears only
to require modest changes as they both already have to support general use of
location descriptions. It is anticipated that will also be the case for other
debuggers and compilers.
As an experiment, GDB was modified to evaluate DWARF Version 5 expressions
with location descriptions as stack entries and implicit conversions. All GDB
tests have passed, except one that turned out to be an invalid test by DWARF
Version 5 rules. The code in GDB actually became simpler as all evaluation was
on the stack and there was no longer a need to maintain a separate structure
for the location description result. This gives confidence of the backwards
compatibility.
Since the AMDGPU supports languages such as OpenCL [:ref:`OpenCL
<amdgpu-dwarf-OpenCL>`], there is a need to define source language address
classes so they can be used in a consistent way by consumers. It would also be
desirable to add support for using them in defining language types rather than
the current target architecture specific address spaces. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-segment_addresses`.
A ``DW_AT_LLVM_augmentation`` attribute is added to a compilation unit
debugger information entry to indicate that there is additional target
architecture specific information in the debugging information entries of that
compilation unit. This allows a consumer to know what extensions are present
in the debugger information entries as is possible with the augmentation
string of other sections. The format that should be used for the augmentation
string in the lookup by name table and CFI Common Information Entry is also
recommended to allow a consumer to parse the string when it contains
information from multiple vendors.
The AMDGPU supports programming languages that include online compilation
where the source text may be created at runtime. Therefore, a way to embed the
source text in the debug information is required. For example, the OpenCL
language runtime supports online compilation. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-line-number-information`.
Support to allow MD5 checksums to be optionally present in the line table is
added. This allows linking together compilation units where some have MD5
checksums and some do not. In DWARF Version 5 the file timestamp and file size
can be optional, but if the MD5 checksum is present it must be valid for all
files. See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-line-number-information`.
Support is added for the HIP programming language [:ref:`HIP
<amdgpu-dwarf-HIP>`] which is supported by the AMDGPU. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-language-names`.
The following sections provide the definitions for the additional operations,
as well as clarifying how existing expression operations, CFI operations, and
attributes behave with respect to generalized location descriptions that
support address spaces and location descriptions that support multiple places.
It has been defined such that it is backwards compatible with DWARF Version 5.
The definitions are intended to fully define well-formed DWARF in a consistent
style based on the DWARF Version 5 specification. Non-normative text is shown
in *italics*.
The names for the new operations, attributes, and constants include "\
``LLVM``\ " and are encoded with vendor specific codes so these extensions can
be implemented as an LLVM vendor extension to DWARF Version 5. If accepted these
names would not include the "\ ``LLVM``\ " and would not use encodings in the
vendor range.
The extensions are described in
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-changes-relative-to-dwarf-version-5` and are
organized to follow the section ordering of DWARF Version 5. It includes notes
to indicate the corresponding DWARF Version 5 sections to which they pertain.
Other notes describe additional changes that may be worth considering, and to
raise questions.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-changes-relative-to-dwarf-version-5:
Changes Relative to DWARF Version 5
===================================
General Description
-------------------
Attribute Types
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This augments DWARF Version 5 section 2.2 and Table 2.2.
The following table provides the additional attributes. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-debugging-information-entry-attributes`.
.. table:: Attribute names
:name: amdgpu-dwarf-attribute-names-table
=========================== ====================================
Attribute Usage
=========================== ====================================
``DW_AT_LLVM_active_lane`` SIMD or SIMT active lanes
``DW_AT_LLVM_augmentation`` Compilation unit augmentation string
``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` SIMD or SIMT lane program location
``DW_AT_LLVM_lanes`` SIMD or SIMT thread lane count
``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size`` Base type vector size
=========================== ====================================
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-expressions:
DWARF Expressions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This section, and its nested sections, replaces DWARF Version 5 section 2.5
and section 2.6. The new DWARF expression operation extensions are defined as
well as clarifying the extensions to already existing DWARF Version 5
operations. It is based on the text of the existing DWARF Version 5 standard.
DWARF expressions describe how to compute a value or specify a location.
*The evaluation of a DWARF expression can provide the location of an object, the
value of an array bound, the length of a dynamic string, the desired value
itself, and so on.*
If the evaluation of a DWARF expression does not encounter an error, then it can
either result in a value (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-expression-value`) or a
location description (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-location-description`). When a
DWARF expression is evaluated, it may be specified whether a value or location
description is required as the result kind.
If a result kind is specified, and the result of the evaluation does not match
the specified result kind, then the implicit conversions described in
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-memory-location-description-operations` are performed if
valid. Otherwise, the DWARF expression is ill-formed.
If the evaluation of a DWARF expression encounters an evaluation error, then the
result is an evaluation error.
.. note::
Decided to define the concept of an evaluation error. An alternative is to
introduce an undefined value base type in a similar way to location
descriptions having an undefined location description. Then operations that
encounter an evaluation error can return the undefined location description or
value with an undefined base type.
All operations that act on values would return an undefined entity if given an
undefined value. The expression would then always evaluate to completion, and
can be tested to determine if it is an undefined entity.
However, this would add considerable additional complexity and does not match
that GDB throws an exception when these evaluation errors occur.
If a DWARF expression is ill-formed, then the result is undefined.
The following sections detail the rules for when a DWARF expression is
ill-formed or results in an evaluation error.
A DWARF expression can either be encoded as an operation expression (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`), or as a location list expression
(see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-location-list-expressions`).
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-expression-evaluation-context:
DWARF Expression Evaluation Context
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
A DWARF expression is evaluated in a context that can include a number of
context elements. If multiple context elements are specified then they must be
self consistent or the result of the evaluation is undefined. The context
elements that can be specified are:
*A current result kind*
The kind of result required by the DWARF expression evaluation. If specified
it can be a location description or a value.
*A current thread*
The target architecture thread identifier of the source program thread of
execution for which a user presented expression is currently being evaluated.
It is required for operations that are related to target architecture threads.
*For example, the* ``DW_OP_form_tls_address`` *operation and*
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` *operation when given an address space that
is thread specific.*
*A current lane*
The target architecture lane identifier of the source program thread of
execution for which a user presented expression is currently being evaluated.
This applies to languages that are implemented using a SIMD or SIMT execution
model.
It is required for operations that are related to target architecture lanes.
*For example, the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_push_lane`` *operation and*
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` *operation when given an address space that
is lane specific.*
If specified, it must be consistent with any specified current thread and
current target architecture. It is consistent with a thread if it identifies a
lane of the thread. It is consistent with a target architecture if it is a
valid lane identifier of the target architecture. Otherwise the result is
undefined.
*A current call frame*
The target architecture call frame identifier. It identifies a call frame that
corresponds to an active invocation of a subprogram in the current thread. It
is identified by its address on the call stack. The address is referred to as
the Canonical Frame Address (CFA). The call frame information is used to
determine the CFA for the call frames of the current thread's call stack (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`).
It is required for operations that specify target architecture registers to
support virtual unwinding of the call stack.
*For example, the* ``DW_OP_*reg*`` *operations.*
If specified, it must be an active call frame in the current thread. If the
current lane is specified, then that lane must have been active on entry to
the call frame (see the ``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` attribute). Otherwise the
result is undefined.
If it is the currently executing call frame, then it is termed the top call
frame.
*A current program location*
The target architecture program location corresponding to the current call
frame of the current thread.
The program location of the top call frame is the target architecture program
counter for the current thread. The call frame information is used to obtain
the value of the return address register to determine the program location of
the other call frames (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`).
It is required for the evaluation of location list expressions to select
amongst multiple program location ranges. It is required for operations that
specify target architecture registers to support virtual unwinding of the call
stack (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`).
If specified:
* If the current lane is not specified:
* If the current call frame is the top call frame, it must be the current
target architecture program location.
* If the current call frame F is not the top call frame, it must be the
program location associated with the call site in the current caller frame
F that invoked the callee frame.
* If the current lane is specified and the architecture program location LPC
computed by the ``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` attribute for the current lane is not
the undefined location description (indicating the lane was not active on
entry to the call frame), it must be LPC.
* Otherwise the result is undefined.
*A current compilation unit*
The compilation unit debug information entry that contains the DWARF expression
being evaluated.
It is required for operations that reference debug information associated with
the same compilation unit, including indicating if such references use the
32-bit or 64-bit DWARF format. It can also provide the default address space
address size if no current target architecture is specified.
*For example, the* ``DW_OP_constx`` *and* ``DW_OP_addrx`` *operations.*
*Note that this compilation unit may not be the same as the compilation unit
determined from the loaded code object corresponding to the current program
location. For example, the evaluation of the expression E associated with a
``DW_AT_location`` attribute of the debug information entry operand of the
``DW_OP_call*`` operations is evaluated with the compilation unit that
contains E and not the one that contains the ``DW_OP_call*`` operation
expression.*
*A current target architecture*
The target architecture.
It is required for operations that specify target architecture specific
entities.
*For example, target architecture specific entities include DWARF register
identifiers, DWARF lane identifiers, DWARF address space identifiers, the
default address space, and the address space address sizes.*
If specified:
* If the current thread is specified, then the current target architecture
must be the same as the target architecture of the current thread.
* If the current compilation unit is specified, then the current target
architecture default address space address size must be the same as he
``address_size`` field in the header of the current compilation unit and any
associated entry in the ``.debug_aranges`` section.
* If the current program location is specified, then the current target
architecture must be the same as the target architecture of any line number
information entry (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-line-number-information`)
corresponding to the current program location.
* If the current program location is specified, then the current target
architecture default address space address size must be the same as he
``address_size`` field in the header of any entry corresponding to the
current program location in the ``.debug_addr``, ``.debug_line``,
``.debug_rnglists``, ``.debug_rnglists.dwo``, ``.debug_loclists``, and
``.debug_loclists.dwo`` sections.
* Otherwise the result is undefined.
*A current object*
The location description of a program object.
It is required for the ``DW_OP_push_object_address`` operation.
*For example, the* ``DW_AT_data_location`` *attribute on type debug
information entries specifies the the program object corresponding to a
runtime descriptor as the current object when it evaluates its associated
expression.*
The result is undefined if the location descriptor is invalid (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-location-description`).
*An initial stack*
This is a list of values or location descriptions that will be pushed on the
operation expression evaluation stack in the order provided before evaluation
of an operation expression starts.
Some debugger information entries have attributes that evaluate their DWARF
expression value with initial stack entries. In all other cases the initial
stack is empty.
The result is undefined if any location descriptors are invalid (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-location-description`).
If the evaluation requires a context element that is not specified, then the
result of the evaluation is an error.
*A DWARF expression for the location description may be able to be evaluated
without a thread, lane, call frame, program location, or architecture context.
For example, the location of a global variable may be able to be evaluated
without such context. If the expression evaluates with an error then it may
indicate the variable has been optimized and so requires more context.*
*The DWARF expression for call frame information (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`) operations are restricted to those
that do not require the compilation unit context to be specified.*
The DWARF is ill-formed if all the ``address_size`` fields in the headers of all
the entries in the ``.debug_info``, ``.debug_addr``, ``.debug_line``,
``.debug_rnglists``, ``.debug_rnglists.dwo``, ``.debug_loclists``, and
``.debug_loclists.dwo`` sections corresponding to any given program location do
not match.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-expression-value:
DWARF Expression Value
++++++++++++++++++++++
A value has a type and a literal value. It can represent a literal value of any
supported base type of the target architecture. The base type specifies the
size, encoding, and endianity of the literal value.
.. note::
It may be desirable to add an implicit pointer base type encoding. It would be
used for the type of the value that is produced when the ``DW_OP_deref*``
operation retrieves the full contents of an implicit pointer location storage
created by the ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` or
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` operations. The literal value would
record the debugging information entry and byte displacement specified by the
associated ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` or
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` operations.
There is a distinguished base type termed the generic type, which is an integral
type that has the size of an address in the target architecture default address
space, a target architecture defined endianity, and unspecified signedness.
*The generic type is the same as the unspecified type used for stack operations
defined in DWARF Version 4 and before.*
An integral type is a base type that has an encoding of ``DW_ATE_signed``,
``DW_ATE_signed_char``, ``DW_ATE_unsigned``, ``DW_ATE_unsigned_char``,
``DW_ATE_boolean``, or any target architecture defined integral encoding in the
inclusive range ``DW_ATE_lo_user`` to ``DW_ATE_hi_user``.
.. note::
It is unclear if ``DW_ATE_address`` is an integral type. GDB does not seem to
consider it as integral.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-location-description:
DWARF Location Description
++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*Debugging information must provide consumers a way to find the location of
program variables, determine the bounds of dynamic arrays and strings, and
possibly to find the base address of a subprogram’s call frame or the return
address of a subprogram. Furthermore, to meet the needs of recent computer
architectures and optimization techniques, debugging information must be able to
describe the location of an object whose location changes over the object’s
lifetime, and may reside at multiple locations simultaneously during parts of an
object's lifetime.*
Information about the location of program objects is provided by location
descriptions.
Location descriptions can consist of one or more single location descriptions.
A single location description specifies the location storage that holds a
program object and a position within the location storage where the program
object starts. The position within the location storage is expressed as a bit
offset relative to the start of the location storage.
A location storage is a linear stream of bits that can hold values. Each
location storage has a size in bits and can be accessed using a zero-based bit
offset. The ordering of bits within a location storage uses the bit numbering
and direction conventions that are appropriate to the current language on the
target architecture.
There are five kinds of location storage:
*memory location storage*
Corresponds to the target architecture memory address spaces.
*register location storage*
Corresponds to the target architecture registers.
*implicit location storage*
Corresponds to fixed values that can only be read.
*undefined location storage*
Indicates no value is available and therefore cannot be read or written.
*composite location storage*
Allows a mixture of these where some bits come from one location storage and
some from another location storage, or from disjoint parts of the same
location storage.
.. note::
It may be better to add an implicit pointer location storage kind used by the
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``
operations. It would specify the debugger information entry and byte offset
provided by the operations.
*Location descriptions are a language independent representation of addressing
rules. They are created using DWARF operation expressions of arbitrary
complexity. They can be the result of evaluating a debugger information entry
attribute that specifies an operation expression. In this usage they can
describe the location of an object as long as its lifetime is either static or
the same as the lexical block (see DWARF Version 5 section 3.5) that owns it,
and it does not move during its lifetime. They can be the result of evaluating a
debugger information entry attribute that specifies a location list expression.
In this usage they can describe the location of an object that has a limited
lifetime, changes its location during its lifetime, or has multiple locations
over part or all of its lifetime.*
If a location description has more than one single location description, the
DWARF expression is ill-formed if the object value held in each single location
description's position within the associated location storage is not the same
value, except for the parts of the value that are uninitialized.
*A location description that has more than one single location description can
only be created by a location list expression that has overlapping program
location ranges, or certain expression operations that act on a location
description that has more than one single location description. There are no
operation expression operations that can directly create a location description
with more than one single location description.*
*A location description with more than one single location description can be
used to describe objects that reside in more than one piece of storage at the
same time. An object may have more than one location as a result of
optimization. For example, a value that is only read may be promoted from memory
to a register for some region of code, but later code may revert to reading the
value from memory as the register may be used for other purposes. For the code
region where the value is in a register, any change to the object value must be
made in both the register and the memory so both regions of code will read the
updated value.*
*A consumer of a location description with more than one single location
description can read the object's value from any of the single location
descriptions (since they all refer to location storage that has the same value),
but must write any changed value to all the single location descriptions.*
The evaluation of an expression may require context elements to create a
location description. If such a location description is accessed, the storage it
denotes is that associated with the context element values specified when the
location description was created, which may differ from the context at the time
it is accessed.
*For example, creating a register location description requires the thread
context: the location storage is for the specified register of that thread.
Creating a memory location description for an address space may required a
thread and a lane context: the location storage is the memory associated with
that thread and lane.*
If any of the context elements required to create a location description change,
the location description becomes invalid and accessing it is undefined.
*Examples of context that can invalidate a location description are:*
* *The thread context is required and execution causes the thread to terminate.*
* *The call frame context is required and further execution causes the call
frame to return to the calling frame.*
* *The program location is required and further execution of the thread occurs.
That could change the location list entry or call frame information entry that
applies.*
* *An operation uses call frame information:*
* *Any of the frames used in the virtual call frame unwinding return.*
* *The top call frame is used, the program location is used to select the call
frame information entry, and further execution of the thread occurs.*
*A DWARF expression can be used to compute a location description for an object.
A subsequent DWARF expression evaluation can be given the object location
description as the object context or initial stack context to compute a
component of the object. The final result is undefined if the object location
description becomes invalid between the two expression evaluations.*
A change of a thread's program location may not make a location description
invalid, yet may still render it as no longer meaningful. Accessing such a
location description, or using it as the object context or initial stack context
of an expression evaluation, may produce an undefined result.
*For example, a location description may specify a register that no longer holds
the intended program object after a program location change. One way to avoid
such problems is to recompute location descriptions associated with threads when
their program locations change.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions:
DWARF Operation Expressions
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
An operation expression is comprised of a stream of operations, each consisting
of an opcode followed by zero or more operands. The number of operands is
implied by the opcode.
Operations represent a postfix operation on a simple stack machine. Each stack
entry can hold either a value or a location description. Operations can act on
entries on the stack, including adding entries and removing entries. If the kind
of a stack entry does not match the kind required by the operation and is not
implicitly convertible to the required kind (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-memory-location-description-operations`), then the DWARF
operation expression is ill-formed.
Evaluation of an operation expression starts with an empty stack on which the
entries from the initial stack provided by the context are pushed in the order
provided. Then the operations are evaluated, starting with the first operation
of the stream. Evaluation continues until either an operation has an evaluation
error, or until one past the last operation of the stream is reached.
The result of the evaluation is:
* If an operation has an evaluation error, or an operation evaluates an
expression that has an evaluation error, then the result is an evaluation
error.
* If the current result kind specifies a location description, then:
* If the stack is empty, the result is a location description with one
undefined location description.
*This rule is for backwards compatibility with DWARF Version 5 which has no
explicit operation to create an undefined location description, and uses an
empty operation expression for this purpose.*
* If the top stack entry is a location description, or can be converted
to one (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-memory-location-description-operations`),
then the result is that, possibly converted, location description. Any other
entries on the stack are discarded.
* Otherwise the DWARF expression is ill-formed.
.. note::
Could define this case as returning an implicit location description as
if the ``DW_OP_implicit`` operation is performed.
* If the current result kind specifies a value, then:
* If the top stack entry is a value, or can be converted to one (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-memory-location-description-operations`), then the result
is that, possibly converted, value. Any other entries on the stack are
discarded.
* Otherwise the DWARF expression is ill-formed.
* If the current result kind is not specified, then:
* If the stack is empty, the result is a location description with one
undefined location description.
*This rule is for backwards compatibility with DWARF Version 5 which has no
explicit operation to create an undefined location description, and uses an
empty operation expression for this purpose.*
.. note::
This rule is consistent with the rule above for when a location
description is requested. However, GDB appears to report this as an error
and no GDB tests appear to cause an empty stack for this case.
* Otherwise, the top stack entry is returned. Any other entries on the stack
are discarded.
An operation expression is encoded as a byte block with some form of prefix that
specifies the byte count. It can be used:
* as the value of a debugging information entry attribute that is encoded using
class ``exprloc`` (see DWARF Version 5 section 7.5.5),
* as the operand to certain operation expression operations,
* as the operand to certain call frame information operations (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`),
* and in location list entries (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-location-list-expressions`).
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-stack-operations:
Stack Operations
################
The following operations manipulate the DWARF stack. Operations that index the
stack assume that the top of the stack (most recently added entry) has index 0.
They allow the stack entries to be either a value or location description.
If any stack entry accessed by a stack operation is an incomplete composite
location description (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-composite-location-description-operations`), then the DWARF
expression is ill-formed.
.. note::
These operations now support stack entries that are values and location
descriptions.
.. note::
If it is desired to also make them work with incomplete composite location
descriptions, then would need to define that the composite location storage
specified by the incomplete composite location description is also replicated
when a copy is pushed. This ensures that each copy of the incomplete composite
location description can update the composite location storage they specify
independently.
1. ``DW_OP_dup``
``DW_OP_dup`` duplicates the stack entry at the top of the stack.
2. ``DW_OP_drop``
``DW_OP_drop`` pops the stack entry at the top of the stack and discards it.
3. ``DW_OP_pick``
``DW_OP_pick`` has a single unsigned 1-byte operand that represents an index
I. A copy of the stack entry with index I is pushed onto the stack.
4. ``DW_OP_over``
``DW_OP_over`` pushes a copy of the entry with index 1.
*This is equivalent to a ``DW_OP_pick 1`` operation.*
5. ``DW_OP_swap``
``DW_OP_swap`` swaps the top two stack entries. The entry at the top of the
stack becomes the second stack entry, and the second stack entry becomes the
top of the stack.
6. ``DW_OP_rot``
``DW_OP_rot`` rotates the first three stack entries. The entry at the top of
the stack becomes the third stack entry, the second entry becomes the top of
the stack, and the third entry becomes the second entry.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-control-flow-operations:
Control Flow Operations
#######################
The following operations provide simple control of the flow of a DWARF operation
expression.
1. ``DW_OP_nop``
``DW_OP_nop`` is a place holder. It has no effect on the DWARF stack
entries.
2. ``DW_OP_le``, ``DW_OP_ge``, ``DW_OP_eq``, ``DW_OP_lt``, ``DW_OP_gt``,
``DW_OP_ne``
.. note::
The same as in DWARF Version 5 section 2.5.1.5.
3. ``DW_OP_skip``
``DW_OP_skip`` is an unconditional branch. Its single operand is a 2-byte
signed integer constant. The 2-byte constant is the number of bytes of the
DWARF expression to skip forward or backward from the current operation,
beginning after the 2-byte constant.
If the updated position is at one past the end of the last operation, then
the operation expression evaluation is complete.
Otherwise, the DWARF expression is ill-formed if the updated operation
position is not in the range of the first to last operation inclusive, or
not at the start of an operation.
4. ``DW_OP_bra``
``DW_OP_bra`` is a conditional branch. Its single operand is a 2-byte signed
integer constant. This operation pops the top of stack. If the value popped
is not the constant 0, the 2-byte constant operand is the number of bytes of
the DWARF operation expression to skip forward or backward from the current
operation, beginning after the 2-byte constant.
If the updated position is at one past the end of the last operation, then
the operation expression evaluation is complete.
Otherwise, the DWARF expression is ill-formed if the updated operation
position is not in the range of the first to last operation inclusive, or
not at the start of an operation.
5. ``DW_OP_call2, DW_OP_call4, DW_OP_call_ref``
``DW_OP_call2``, ``DW_OP_call4``, and ``DW_OP_call_ref`` perform DWARF
procedure calls during evaluation of a DWARF expression.
``DW_OP_call2`` and ``DW_OP_call4``, have one operand that is, respectively,
a 2-byte or 4-byte unsigned offset DR that represents the byte offset of a
debugging information entry D relative to the beginning of the current
compilation unit.
``DW_OP_call_ref`` has one operand that is a 4-byte unsigned value in the
32-bit DWARF format, or an 8-byte unsigned value in the 64-bit DWARF format,
that represents the byte offset DR of a debugging information entry D
relative to the beginning of the ``.debug_info`` section that contains the
current compilation unit. D may not be in the current compilation unit.
.. note:
DWARF Version 5 states that DR can be an offset in a ``.debug_info``
section other than the one that contains the current compilation unit. It
states that relocation of references from one executable or shared object
file to another must be performed by the consumer. But given that DR is
defined as an offset in a ``.debug_info`` section this seems impossible.
If DR was defined as an implementation defined value, then the consumer
could choose to interpret the value in an implementation defined manner to
reference a debug information in another executable or shared object.
In ELF the ``.debug_info`` section is in a non-\ ``PT_LOAD`` segment so
standard dynamic relocations cannot be used. But even if they were loaded
segments and dynamic relocations were used, DR would need to be the
address of D, not an offset in a ``.debug_info`` section. That would also
need DR to be the size of a global address. So it would not be possible to
use the 32-bit DWARF format in a 64-bit global address space. In addition,
the consumer would need to determine what executable or shared object the
relocated address was in so it could determine the containing compilation
unit.
GDB only interprets DR as an offset in the ``.debug_info`` section that
contains the current compilation unit.
This comment also applies to ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``.
*Operand interpretation of* ``DW_OP_call2``\ *,* ``DW_OP_call4``\ *, and*
``DW_OP_call_ref`` *is exactly like that for* ``DW_FORM_ref2``\ *,
``DW_FORM_ref4``\ *, and* ``DW_FORM_ref_addr``\ *, respectively.*
The call operation is evaluated by:
* If D has a ``DW_AT_location`` attribute that is encoded as a ``exprloc``
that specifies an operation expression E, then execution of the current
operation expression continues from the first operation of E. Execution
continues until one past the last operation of E is reached, at which
point execution continues with the operation following the call operation.
The operations of E are evaluated with the same current context, except
current compilation unit is the one that contains D and the stack is the
same as that being used by the call operation. After the call operation
has been evaluated, the stack is therefore as it is left by the evaluation
of the operations of E. Since E is evaluated on the same stack as the call
operation, E can use, and/or remove entries already on the stack, and can
add new entries to the stack.
*Values on the stack at the time of the call may be used as parameters by
the called expression and values left on the stack by the called expression
may be used as return values by prior agreement between the calling and
called expressions.*
* If D has a ``DW_AT_location`` attribute that is encoded as a ``loclist`` or
``loclistsptr``, then the specified location list expression E is
evaluated. The evaluation of E uses the current context, except the result
kind is a location description, the compilation unit is the one that
contains D, and the initial stack is empty. The location description
result is pushed on the stack.
.. note::
This rule avoids having to define how to execute a matched location list
entry operation expression on the same stack as the call when there are
multiple matches. But it allows the call to obtain the location
description for a variable or formal parameter which may use a location
list expression.
An alternative is to treat the case when D has a ``DW_AT_location``
attribute that is encoded as a ``loclist`` or ``loclistsptr``, and the
specified location list expression E' matches a single location list
entry with operation expression E, the same as the ``exprloc`` case and
evaluate on the same stack.
But this is not attractive as if the attribute is for a variable that
happens to end with a non-singleton stack, it will not simply put a
location description on the stack. Presumably the intent of using
``DW_OP_call*`` on a variable or formal parameter debugger information
entry is to push just one location description on the stack. That
location description may have more than one single location description.
The previous rule for ``exprloc`` also has the same problem as normally
a variable or formal parameter location expression may leave multiple
entries on the stack and only return the top entry.
GDB implements ``DW_OP_call*`` by always executing E on the same stack.
If the location list has multiple matching entries, it simply picks the
first one and ignores the rest. This seems fundamentally at odds with
the desire to supporting multiple places for variables.
So, it feels like ``DW_OP_call*`` should both support pushing a location
description on the stack for a variable or formal parameter, and also
support being able to execute an operation expression on the same stack.
Being able to specify a different operation expression for different
program locations seems a desirable feature to retain.
A solution to that is to have a distinct ``DW_AT_LLVM_proc`` attribute
for the ``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure`` debugging information entry. Then the
``DW_AT_location`` attribute expression is always executed separately
and pushes a location description (that may have multiple single
location descriptions), and the ``DW_AT_LLVM_proc`` attribute expression
is always executed on the same stack and can leave anything on the
stack.
The ``DW_AT_LLVM_proc`` attribute could have the new classes
``exprproc``, ``loclistproc``, and ``loclistsptrproc`` to indicate that
the expression is executed on the same stack. ``exprproc`` is the same
encoding as ``exprloc``. ``loclistproc`` and ``loclistsptrproc`` are the
same encoding as their non-\ ``proc`` counterparts, except the DWARF is
ill-formed if the location list does not match exactly one location list
entry and a default entry is required. These forms indicate explicitly
that the matched single operation expression must be executed on the
same stack. This is better than ad hoc special rules for ``loclistproc``
and ``loclistsptrproc`` which are currently clearly defined to always
return a location description. The producer then explicitly indicates
the intent through the attribute classes.
Such a change would be a breaking change for how GDB implements
``DW_OP_call*``. However, are the breaking cases actually occurring in
practice? GDB could implement the current approach for DWARF Version 5,
and the new semantics for DWARF Version 6 which has been done for some
other features.
Another option is to limit the execution to be on the same stack only to
the evaluation of an expression E that is the value of a
``DW_AT_location`` attribute of a ``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure`` debugging
information entry. The DWARF would be ill-formed if E is a location list
expression that does not match exactly one location list entry. In all
other cases the evaluation of an expression E that is the value of a
``DW_AT_location`` attribute would evaluate E with the current context,
except the result kind is a location description, the compilation unit
is the one that contains D, and the initial stack is empty. The location
description result is pushed on the stack.
* If D has a ``DW_AT_const_value`` attribute with a value V, then it is as
if a ``DW_OP_implicit_value V`` operation was executed.
*This allows a call operation to be used to compute the location
description for any variable or formal parameter regardless of whether the
producer has optimized it to a constant. This is consistent with the
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` operation.*
.. note::
Alternatively, could deprecate using ``DW_AT_const_value`` for
``DW_TAG_variable`` and ``DW_TAG_formal_parameter`` debugger information
entries that are constants and instead use ``DW_AT_location`` with an
operation expression that results in a location description with one
implicit location description. Then this rule would not be required.
* Otherwise, there is no effect and no changes are made to the stack.
.. note::
In DWARF Version 5, if D does not have a ``DW_AT_location`` then
``DW_OP_call*`` is defined to have no effect. It is unclear that this is
the right definition as a producer should be able to rely on using
``DW_OP_call*`` to get a location description for any non-\
``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure`` debugging information entries. Also, the
producer should not be creating DWARF with ``DW_OP_call*`` to a
``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure`` that does not have a ``DW_AT_location``
attribute. So, should this case be defined as an ill-formed DWARF
expression?
*The* ``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure`` *debugging information entry can be used to
define DWARF procedures that can be called.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-value-operations:
Value Operations
################
This section describes the operations that push values on the stack.
Each value stack entry has a type and a literal value and can represent a
literal value of any supported base type of the target architecture. The base
type specifies the size, encoding, and endianity of the literal value.
The base type of value stack entries can be the distinguished generic type.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-literal-operations:
Literal Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The following operations all push a literal value onto the DWARF stack.
Operations other than ``DW_OP_const_type`` push a value V with the generic type.
If V is larger than the generic type, then V is truncated to the generic type
size and the low-order bits used.
1. ``DW_OP_lit0``, ``DW_OP_lit1``, ..., ``DW_OP_lit31``
``DW_OP_lit<N>`` operations encode an unsigned literal value N from 0
through 31, inclusive. They push the value N with the generic type.
2. ``DW_OP_const1u``, ``DW_OP_const2u``, ``DW_OP_const4u``, ``DW_OP_const8u``
``DW_OP_const<N>u`` operations have a single operand that is a 1, 2, 4, or
8-byte unsigned integer constant U, respectively. They push the value U with
the generic type.
3. ``DW_OP_const1s``, ``DW_OP_const2s``, ``DW_OP_const4s``, ``DW_OP_const8s``
``DW_OP_const<N>s`` operations have a single operand that is a 1, 2, 4, or
8-byte signed integer constant S, respectively. They push the value S with
the generic type.
4. ``DW_OP_constu``
``DW_OP_constu`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer operand N. It pushes
the value N with the generic type.
5. ``DW_OP_consts``
``DW_OP_consts`` has a single signed LEB128 integer operand N. It pushes the
value N with the generic type.
6. ``DW_OP_constx``
``DW_OP_constx`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer operand that
represents a zero-based index into the ``.debug_addr`` section relative to
the value of the ``DW_AT_addr_base`` attribute of the associated compilation
unit. The value N in the ``.debug_addr`` section has the size of the generic
type. It pushes the value N with the generic type.
*The* ``DW_OP_constx`` *operation is provided for constants that require
link-time relocation but should not be interpreted by the consumer as a
relocatable address (for example, offsets to thread-local storage).*
9. ``DW_OP_const_type``
``DW_OP_const_type`` has three operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128
integer DR that represents the byte offset of a debugging information entry
D relative to the beginning of the current compilation unit, that provides
the type T of the constant value. The second is a 1-byte unsigned integral
constant S. The third is a block of bytes B, with a length equal to S.
TS is the bit size of the type T. The least significant TS bits of B are
interpreted as a value V of the type D. It pushes the value V with the type
D.
The DWARF is ill-formed if D is not a ``DW_TAG_base_type`` debugging
information entry in the current compilation unit, or if TS divided by 8
(the byte size) and rounded up to a whole number is not equal to S.
*While the size of the byte block B can be inferred from the type D
definition, it is encoded explicitly into the operation so that the
operation can be parsed easily without reference to the* ``.debug_info``
*section.*
10. ``DW_OP_LLVM_push_lane`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_push_lane`` pushes the target architecture lane identifier of
the current lane as a value with the generic type.
*For languages that are implemented using a SIMD or SIMT execution model,
this is the lane number that corresponds to the source language thread of
execution upon which the user is focused.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-arithmetic-logical-operations:
Arithmetic and Logical Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. note::
This section is the same as DWARF Version 5 section 2.5.1.4.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-type-conversions-operations:
Type Conversion Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. note::
This section is the same as DWARF Version 5 section 2.5.1.6.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-general-operations:
Special Value Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There are these special value operations currently defined:
1. ``DW_OP_regval_type``
``DW_OP_regval_type`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128
integer that represents a register number R. The second is an unsigned
LEB128 integer DR that represents the byte offset of a debugging information
entry D relative to the beginning of the current compilation unit, that
provides the type T of the register value.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_regx R; DW_OP_deref_type
DR``.
.. note::
Should DWARF allow the type T to be a larger size than the size of the
register R? Restricting a larger bit size avoids any issue of conversion
as the, possibly truncated, bit contents of the register is simply
interpreted as a value of T. If a conversion is wanted it can be done
explicitly using a ``DW_OP_convert`` operation.
GDB has a per register hook that allows a target specific conversion on a
register by register basis. It defaults to truncation of bigger registers.
Removing use of the target hook does not cause any test failures in common
architectures. If the compiler for a target architecture did want some
form of conversion, including a larger result type, it could always
explicitly used the ``DW_OP_convert`` operation.
If T is a larger type than the register size, then the default GDB
register hook reads bytes from the next register (or reads out of bounds
for the last register!). Removing use of the target hook does not cause
any test failures in common architectures (except an illegal hand written
assembly test). If a target architecture requires this behavior, these
extensions allow a composite location description to be used to combine
multiple registers.
2. ``DW_OP_deref``
S is the bit size of the generic type divided by 8 (the byte size) and
rounded up to a whole number. DR is the offset of a hypothetical debug
information entry D in the current compilation unit for a base type of the
generic type.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_deref_type S, DR``.
3. ``DW_OP_deref_size``
``DW_OP_deref_size`` has a single 1-byte unsigned integral constant that
represents a byte result size S.
TS is the smaller of the generic type bit size and S scaled by 8 (the byte
size). If TS is smaller than the generic type bit size then T is an unsigned
integral type of bit size TS, otherwise T is the generic type. DR is the
offset of a hypothetical debug information entry D in the current
compilation unit for a base type T.
.. note::
Truncating the value when S is larger than the generic type matches what
GDB does. This allows the generic type size to not be an integral byte
size. It does allow S to be arbitrarily large. Should S be restricted to
the size of the generic type rounded up to a multiple of 8?
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_deref_type S, DR``, except
if T is not the generic type, the value V pushed is zero-extended to the
generic type bit size and its type changed to the generic type.
4. ``DW_OP_deref_type``
``DW_OP_deref_type`` has two operands. The first is a 1-byte unsigned
integral constant S. The second is an unsigned LEB128 integer DR that
represents the byte offset of a debugging information entry D relative to
the beginning of the current compilation unit, that provides the type T of
the result value.
TS is the bit size of the type T.
*While the size of the pushed value V can be inferred from the type T, it is
encoded explicitly as the operand S so that the operation can be parsed
easily without reference to the* ``.debug_info`` *section.*
.. note::
It is unclear why the operand S is needed. Unlike ``DW_OP_const_type``,
the size is not needed for parsing. Any evaluation needs to get the base
type T to push with the value to know its encoding and bit size.
It pops one stack entry that must be a location description L.
A value V of TS bits is retrieved from the location storage LS specified by
one of the single location descriptions SL of L.
*If L, or the location description of any composite location description
part that is a subcomponent of L, has more than one single location
description, then any one of them can be selected as they are required to
all have the same value. For any single location description SL, bits are
retrieved from the associated storage location starting at the bit offset
specified by SL. For a composite location description, the retrieved bits
are the concatenation of the N bits from each composite location part PL,
where N is limited to the size of PL.*
V is pushed on the stack with the type T.
.. note::
This definition makes it an evaluation error if L is a register location
description that has less than TS bits remaining in the register storage.
Particularly since these extensions extend location descriptions to have
a bit offset, it would be odd to define this as performing sign extension
based on the type, or be target architecture dependent, as the number of
remaining bits could be any number. This matches the GDB implementation
for ``DW_OP_deref_type``.
These extensions define ``DW_OP_*breg*`` in terms of
``DW_OP_regval_type``. ``DW_OP_regval_type`` is defined in terms of
``DW_OP_regx``, which uses a 0 bit offset, and ``DW_OP_deref_type``.
Therefore, it requires the register size to be greater or equal to the
address size of the address space. This matches the GDB implementation for
``DW_OP_*breg*``.
The DWARF is ill-formed if D is not in the current compilation unit, D is
not a ``DW_TAG_base_type`` debugging information entry, or if TS divided by
8 (the byte size) and rounded up to a whole number is not equal to S.
.. note::
This definition allows the base type to be a bit size since there seems no
reason to restrict it.
It is an evaluation error if any bit of the value is retrieved from the
undefined location storage or the offset of any bit exceeds the size of the
location storage LS specified by any single location description SL of L.
See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-implicit-location-descriptions` for special rules
concerning implicit location descriptions created by the
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and ``DW_OP_LLVM_implicit_aspace_pointer``
operations.
5. ``DW_OP_xderef`` *Deprecated*
``DW_OP_xderef`` pops two stack entries. The first must be an integral type
value that represents an address A. The second must be an integral type
value that represents a target architecture specific address space
identifier AS.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_swap;
DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address; DW_OP_deref``. The value V retrieved is left
on the stack with the generic type.
*This operation is deprecated as the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``
*operation can be used and provides greater expressiveness.*
6. ``DW_OP_xderef_size`` *Deprecated*
``DW_OP_xderef_size`` has a single 1-byte unsigned integral constant that
represents a byte result size S.
It pops two stack entries. The first must be an integral type value that
represents an address A. The second must be an integral type value that
represents a target architecture specific address space identifier AS.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_swap;
DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address; DW_OP_deref_size S``. The zero-extended
value V retrieved is left on the stack with the generic type.
*This operation is deprecated as the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``
*operation can be used and provides greater expressiveness.*
7. ``DW_OP_xderef_type`` *Deprecated*
``DW_OP_xderef_type`` has two operands. The first is a 1-byte unsigned
integral constant S. The second operand is an unsigned LEB128 integer DR
that represents the byte offset of a debugging information entry D relative
to the beginning of the current compilation unit, that provides the type T
of the result value.
It pops two stack entries. The first must be an integral type value that
represents an address A. The second must be an integral type value that
represents a target architecture specific address space identifier AS.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_swap;
DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address; DW_OP_deref_type S R``. The value V
retrieved is left on the stack with the type D.
*This operation is deprecated as the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``
*operation can be used and provides greater expressiveness.*
8. ``DW_OP_entry_value`` *Deprecated*
``DW_OP_entry_value`` pushes the value of an expression that is evaluated in
the context of the calling frame.
*It may be used to determine the value of arguments on entry to the current
call frame provided they are not clobbered.*
It has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128 integer S. The second
is a block of bytes, with a length equal S, interpreted as a DWARF
operation expression E.
E is evaluated with the current context, except the result kind is
unspecified, the call frame is the one that called the current frame, the
program location is the call site in the calling frame, the object is
unspecified, and the initial stack is empty. The calling frame information
is obtained by virtually unwinding the current call frame using the call
frame information (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`).
If the result of E is a location description L (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-register-location-descriptions`), and the last operation
executed by E is a ``DW_OP_reg*`` for register R with a target architecture
specific base type of T, then the contents of the register are retrieved as
if a ``DW_OP_deref_type DR`` operation was performed where DR is the offset
of a hypothetical debug information entry in the current compilation unit
for T. The resulting value V s pushed on the stack.
*Using* ``DW_OP_reg*`` *provides a more compact form for the case where the
value was in a register on entry to the subprogram.*
.. note:
It is unclear how this provides a more compact expression, as
``DW_OP_regval_type`` could be used which is marginally larger.
If the result of E is a value V, then V is pushed on the stack.
Otherwise, the DWARF expression is ill-formed.
*The* ``DW_OP_entry_value`` *operation is deprecated as its main usage is
provided by other means. DWARF Version 5 added the*
``DW_TAG_call_site_parameter`` *debugger information entry for call sites
that has* ``DW_AT_call_value``\ *,* ``DW_AT_call_data_location``\ *, and*
``DW_AT_call_data_value`` *attributes that provide DWARF expressions to
compute actual parameter values at the time of the call, and requires the
producer to ensure the expressions are valid to evaluate even when virtually
unwound. The* ``DW_OP_LLVM_call_frame_entry_reg`` *operation provides access
to registers in the virtually unwound calling frame.*
.. note::
GDB only implements ``DW_OP_entry_value`` when E is exactly
``DW_OP_reg*`` or ``DW_OP_breg*; DW_OP_deref*``.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-location-description-operations:
Location Description Operations
###############################
This section describes the operations that push location descriptions on the
stack.
General Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
1. ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset`` pops two stack entries. The first must be an integral
type value that represents a byte displacement B. The second must be a
location description L.
It adds the value of B scaled by 8 (the byte size) to the bit offset of each
single location description SL of L, and pushes the updated L.
It is an evaluation error if the updated bit offset of any SL is less than 0
or greater than or equal to the size of the location storage specified by
SL.
2. ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer operand
that represents a byte displacement B.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_constu B;
DW_OP_LLVM_offset``.
*This operation is supplied specifically to be able to encode more field
displacements in two bytes than can be done with* ``DW_OP_lit*;
DW_OP_LLVM_offset``\ *.*
.. note::
Should this be named ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst`` to match
``DW_OP_plus_uconst``, or ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_constu`` to match
``DW_OP_constu``?
3. ``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` pops two stack entries. The first must be an
integral type value that represents a bit displacement B. The second must be
a location description L.
It adds the value of B to the bit offset of each single location description
SL of L, and pushes the updated L.
It is an evaluation error if the updated bit offset of any SL is less than 0
or greater than or equal to the size of the location storage specified by
SL.
4. ``DW_OP_push_object_address``
``DW_OP_push_object_address`` pushes the location description L of the
current object.
*This object may correspond to an independent variable that is part of a
user presented expression that is being evaluated. The object location
description may be determined from the variable's own debugging information
entry or it may be a component of an array, structure, or class whose
address has been dynamically determined by an earlier step during user
expression evaluation.*
*This operation provides explicit functionality (especially for arrays
involving descriptions) that is analogous to the implicit push of the base
location description of a structure prior to evaluation of a
``DW_AT_data_member_location`` to access a data member of a structure.*
.. note::
This operation could be removed and the object location description
specified as the initial stack as for ``DW_AT_data_member_location``.
The only attribute that specifies a current object is
``DW_AT_data_location`` so the non-normative text seems to overstate how
this is being used. Or are there other attributes that need to state they
pass an object?
5. ``DW_OP_LLVM_call_frame_entry_reg`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_call_frame_entry_reg`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer
operand that represents a target architecture register number R.
It pushes a location description L that holds the value of register R on
entry to the current subprogram as defined by the call frame information
(see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`).
*If there is no call frame information defined, then the default rules for
the target architecture are used. If the register rule is* undefined\ *, then
the undefined location description is pushed. If the register rule is* same
value\ *, then a register location description for R is pushed.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-undefined-location-description-operations:
Undefined Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
*The undefined location storage represents a piece or all of an object that is
present in the source but not in the object code (perhaps due to optimization).
Neither reading nor writing to the undefined location storage is meaningful.*
An undefined location description specifies the undefined location storage.
There is no concept of the size of the undefined location storage, nor of a bit
offset for an undefined location description. The ``DW_OP_LLVM_*offset``
operations leave an undefined location description unchanged. The
``DW_OP_*piece`` operations can explicitly or implicitly specify an undefined
location description, allowing any size and offset to be specified, and results
in a part with all undefined bits.
1. ``DW_OP_LLVM_undefined`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_undefined`` pushes a location description L that comprises one
undefined location description SL.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-memory-location-description-operations:
Memory Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Each of the target architecture specific address spaces has a corresponding
memory location storage that denotes the linear addressable memory of that
address space. The size of each memory location storage corresponds to the range
of the addresses in the corresponding address space.
*It is target architecture defined how address space location storage maps to
target architecture physical memory. For example, they may be independent
memory, or more than one location storage may alias the same physical memory
possibly at different offsets and with different interleaving. The mapping may
also be dictated by the source language address classes.*
A memory location description specifies a memory location storage. The bit
offset corresponds to a bit position within a byte of the memory. Bits accessed
using a memory location description, access the corresponding target
architecture memory starting at the bit position within the byte specified by
the bit offset.
A memory location description that has a bit offset that is a multiple of 8 (the
byte size) is defined to be a byte address memory location description. It has a
memory byte address A that is equal to the bit offset divided by 8.
A memory location description that does not have a bit offset that is a multiple
of 8 (the byte size) is defined to be a bit field memory location description.
It has a bit position B equal to the bit offset modulo 8, and a memory byte
address A equal to the bit offset minus B that is then divided by 8.
The address space AS of a memory location description is defined to be the
address space that corresponds to the memory location storage associated with
the memory location description.
A location description that is comprised of one byte address memory location
description SL is defined to be a memory byte address location description. It
has a byte address equal to A and an address space equal to AS of the
corresponding SL.
``DW_ASPACE_none`` is defined as the target architecture default address space.
If a stack entry is required to be a location description, but it is a value V
with the generic type, then it is implicitly converted to a location description
L with one memory location description SL. SL specifies the memory location
storage that corresponds to the target architecture default address space with a
bit offset equal to V scaled by 8 (the byte size).
.. note::
If it is wanted to allow any integral type value to be implicitly converted to
a memory location description in the target architecture default address
space:
If a stack entry is required to be a location description, but is a value V
with an integral type, then it is implicitly converted to a location
description L with a one memory location description SL. If the type size of
V is less than the generic type size, then the value V is zero extended to
the size of the generic type. The least significant generic type size bits
are treated as a twos-complement unsigned value to be used as an address A.
SL specifies memory location storage corresponding to the target
architecture default address space with a bit offset equal to A scaled by 8
(the byte size).
The implicit conversion could also be defined as target architecture specific.
For example, GDB checks if V is an integral type. If it is not it gives an
error. Otherwise, GDB zero-extends V to 64 bits. If the GDB target defines a
hook function, then it is called. The target specific hook function can modify
the 64-bit value, possibly sign extending based on the original value type.
Finally, GDB treats the 64-bit value V as a memory location address.
If a stack entry is required to be a location description, but it is an implicit
pointer value IPV with the target architecture default address space, then it is
implicitly converted to a location description with one single location
description specified by IPV. See
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-implicit-location-descriptions`.
.. note::
Is this rule required for DWARF Version 5 backwards compatibility? If not, it
can be eliminated, and the producer can use
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``.
If a stack entry is required to be a value, but it is a location description L
with one memory location description SL in the target architecture default
address space with a bit offset B that is a multiple of 8, then it is implicitly
converted to a value equal to B divided by 8 (the byte size) with the generic
type.
1. ``DW_OP_addr``
``DW_OP_addr`` has a single byte constant value operand, which has the size
of the generic type, that represents an address A.
It pushes a location description L with one memory location description SL
on the stack. SL specifies the memory location storage corresponding to the
target architecture default address space with a bit offset equal to A
scaled by 8 (the byte size).
*If the DWARF is part of a code object, then A may need to be relocated. For
example, in the ELF code object format, A must be adjusted by the difference
between the ELF segment virtual address and the virtual address at which the
segment is loaded.*
2. ``DW_OP_addrx``
``DW_OP_addrx`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer operand that represents
a zero-based index into the ``.debug_addr`` section relative to the value of
the ``DW_AT_addr_base`` attribute of the associated compilation unit. The
address value A in the ``.debug_addr`` section has the size of the generic
type.
It pushes a location description L with one memory location description SL
on the stack. SL specifies the memory location storage corresponding to the
target architecture default address space with a bit offset equal to A
scaled by 8 (the byte size).
*If the DWARF is part of a code object, then A may need to be relocated. For
example, in the ELF code object format, A must be adjusted by the difference
between the ELF segment virtual address and the virtual address at which the
segment is loaded.*
3. ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` pops top two stack entries. The first
must be an integral type value that represents a target architecture
specific address space identifier AS. The second must be an integral type
value that represents an address A.
The address size S is defined as the address bit size of the target
architecture specific address space that corresponds to AS.
A is adjusted to S bits by zero extending if necessary, and then treating the
least significant S bits as a twos-complement unsigned value A'.
It pushes a location description L with one memory location description SL
on the stack. SL specifies the memory location storage LS that corresponds
to AS with a bit offset equal to A' scaled by 8 (the byte size).
If AS is an address space that is specific to context elements, then LS
corresponds to the location storage associated with the current context.
*For example, if AS is for per thread storage then LS is the location
storage for the current thread. For languages that are implemented using a
SIMD or SIMT execution model, then if AS is for per lane storage then LS is
the location storage for the current lane of the current thread. Therefore,
if L is accessed by an operation, the location storage selected when the
location description was created is accessed, and not the location storage
associated with the current context of the access operation.*
The DWARF expression is ill-formed if AS is not one of the values defined by
the target architecture specific ``DW_ASPACE_*`` values.
See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-implicit-location-descriptions` for special rules
concerning implicit pointer values produced by dereferencing implicit
location descriptions created by the ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and
``DW_OP_LLVM_implicit_aspace_pointer`` operations.
4. ``DW_OP_form_tls_address``
``DW_OP_form_tls_address`` pops one stack entry that must be an integral
type value and treats it as a thread-local storage address TA.
It pushes a location description L with one memory location description SL
on the stack. SL is the target architecture specific memory location
description that corresponds to the thread-local storage address TA.
The meaning of the thread-local storage address TA is defined by the
run-time environment. If the run-time environment supports multiple
thread-local storage blocks for a single thread, then the block
corresponding to the executable or shared library containing this DWARF
expression is used.
*Some implementations of C, C++, Fortran, and other languages support a
thread-local storage class. Variables with this storage class have distinct
values and addresses in distinct threads, much as automatic variables have
distinct values and addresses in each subprogram invocation. Typically,
there is a single block of storage containing all thread-local variables
declared in the main executable, and a separate block for the variables
declared in each shared library. Each thread-local variable can then be
accessed in its block using an identifier. This identifier is typically a
byte offset into the block and pushed onto the DWARF stack by one of the*
``DW_OP_const*`` *operations prior to the* ``DW_OP_form_tls_address``
*operation. Computing the address of the appropriate block can be complex
(in some cases, the compiler emits a function call to do it), and difficult
to describe using ordinary DWARF location descriptions. Instead of forcing
complex thread-local storage calculations into the DWARF expressions, the*
``DW_OP_form_tls_address`` *allows the consumer to perform the computation
based on the target architecture specific run-time environment.*
5. ``DW_OP_call_frame_cfa``
``DW_OP_call_frame_cfa`` pushes the location description L of the Canonical
Frame Address (CFA) of the current subprogram, obtained from the call frame
information on the stack. See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`.
*Although the value of the* ``DW_AT_frame_base`` *attribute of the debugger
information entry corresponding to the current subprogram can be computed
using a location list expression, in some cases this would require an
extensive location list because the values of the registers used in
computing the CFA change during a subprogram execution. If the call frame
information is present, then it already encodes such changes, and it is
space efficient to reference that using the* ``DW_OP_call_frame_cfa``
*operation.*
6. ``DW_OP_fbreg``
``DW_OP_fbreg`` has a single signed LEB128 integer operand that represents a
byte displacement B.
The location description L for the *frame base* of the current subprogram is
obtained from the ``DW_AT_frame_base`` attribute of the debugger information
entry corresponding to the current subprogram as described in
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-debugging-information-entry-attributes`.
The location description L is updated as if the ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst
B`` operation was applied. The updated L is pushed on the stack.
7. ``DW_OP_breg0``, ``DW_OP_breg1``, ..., ``DW_OP_breg31``
The ``DW_OP_breg<N>`` operations encode the numbers of up to 32 registers,
numbered from 0 through 31, inclusive. The register number R corresponds to
the N in the operation name.
They have a single signed LEB128 integer operand that represents a byte
displacement B.
The address space identifier AS is defined as the one corresponding to the
target architecture specific default address space.
The address size S is defined as the address bit size of the target
architecture specific address space corresponding to AS.
The contents of the register specified by R are retrieved as if a
``DW_OP_regval_type R, DR`` operation was performed where DR is the offset
of a hypothetical debug information entry in the current compilation unit
for an unsigned integral base type of size S bits. B is added and the least
significant S bits are treated as an unsigned value to be used as an address
A.
They push a location description L comprising one memory location
description LS on the stack. LS specifies the memory location storage that
corresponds to AS with a bit offset equal to A scaled by 8 (the byte size).
8. ``DW_OP_bregx``
``DW_OP_bregx`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128 integer
that represents a register number R. The second is a signed LEB128
integer that represents a byte displacement B.
The action is the same as for ``DW_OP_breg<N>``, except that R is used as
the register number and B is used as the byte displacement.
9. ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_bregx`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_bregx`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned
LEB128 integer that represents a register number R. The second is a signed
LEB128 integer that represents a byte displacement B. It pops one stack
entry that is required to be an integral type value that represents a target
architecture specific address space identifier AS.
The action is the same as for ``DW_OP_breg<N>``, except that R is used as
the register number, B is used as the byte displacement, and AS is used as
the address space identifier.
The DWARF expression is ill-formed if AS is not one of the values defined by
the target architecture specific ``DW_ASPACE_*`` values.
.. note::
Could also consider adding ``DW_OP_aspace_breg0, DW_OP_aspace_breg1, ...,
DW_OP_aspace_bref31`` which would save encoding size.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-register-location-descriptions:
Register Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There is a register location storage that corresponds to each of the target
architecture registers. The size of each register location storage corresponds
to the size of the corresponding target architecture register.
A register location description specifies a register location storage. The bit
offset corresponds to a bit position within the register. Bits accessed using a
register location description access the corresponding target architecture
register starting at the specified bit offset.
1. ``DW_OP_reg0``, ``DW_OP_reg1``, ..., ``DW_OP_reg31``
``DW_OP_reg<N>`` operations encode the numbers of up to 32 registers,
numbered from 0 through 31, inclusive. The target architecture register
number R corresponds to the N in the operation name.
The operation is equivalent to performing ``DW_OP_regx R``.
2. ``DW_OP_regx``
``DW_OP_regx`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer operand that represents
a target architecture register number R.
If the current call frame is the top call frame, it pushes a location
description L that specifies one register location description SL on the
stack. SL specifies the register location storage that corresponds to R with
a bit offset of 0 for the current thread.
If the current call frame is not the top call frame, call frame information
(see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`) is used to determine the
location description that holds the register for the current call frame and
current program location of the current thread. The resulting location
description L is pushed.
*Note that if call frame information is used, the resulting location
description may be register, memory, or undefined.*
*An implementation may evaluate the call frame information immediately, or
may defer evaluation until L is accessed by an operation. If evaluation is
deferred, R and the current context can be recorded in L. When accessed, the
recorded context is used to evaluate the call frame information, not the
current context of the access operation.*
*These operations obtain a register location. To fetch the contents of a
register, it is necessary to use* ``DW_OP_regval_type``\ *, use one of the*
``DW_OP_breg*`` *register-based addressing operations, or use* ``DW_OP_deref*``
*on a register location description.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-implicit-location-descriptions:
Implicit Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Implicit location storage represents a piece or all of an object which has no
actual location in the program but whose contents are nonetheless known, either
as a constant or can be computed from other locations and values in the program.
An implicit location description specifies an implicit location storage. The bit
offset corresponds to a bit position within the implicit location storage. Bits
accessed using an implicit location description, access the corresponding
implicit storage value starting at the bit offset.
1. ``DW_OP_implicit_value``
``DW_OP_implicit_value`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128
integer that represents a byte size S. The second is a block of bytes with a
length equal to S treated as a literal value V.
An implicit location storage LS is created with the literal value V and a
size of S.
It pushes location description L with one implicit location description SL
on the stack. SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
2. ``DW_OP_stack_value``
``DW_OP_stack_value`` pops one stack entry that must be a value V.
An implicit location storage LS is created with the literal value V using
the size, encoding, and enianity specified by V's base type.
It pushes a location description L with one implicit location description SL
on the stack. SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
*The* ``DW_OP_stack_value`` *operation specifies that the object does not
exist in memory, but its value is nonetheless known. In this form, the
location description specifies the actual value of the object, rather than
specifying the memory or register storage that holds the value.*
See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-implicit-location-descriptions` for special rules
concerning implicit pointer values produced by dereferencing implicit
location descriptions created by the ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and
``DW_OP_LLVM_implicit_aspace_pointer`` operations.
.. note::
Since location descriptions are allowed on the stack, the
``DW_OP_stack_value`` operation no longer terminates the DWARF operation
expression execution as in DWARF Version 5.
3. ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer``
*An optimizing compiler may eliminate a pointer, while still retaining the
value that the pointer addressed.* ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` *allows a
producer to describe this value.*
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` *specifies an object is a pointer to the target
architecture default address space that cannot be represented as a real
pointer, even though the value it would point to can be described. In this
form, the location description specifies a debugging information entry that
represents the actual location description of the object to which the
pointer would point. Thus, a consumer of the debug information would be able
to access the dereferenced pointer, even when it cannot access the pointer
itself.*
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` has two operands. The first operand is a 4-byte
unsigned value in the 32-bit DWARF format, or an 8-byte unsigned value in
the 64-bit DWARF format, that represents the byte offset DR of a debugging
information entry D relative to the beginning of the ``.debug_info`` section
that contains the current compilation unit. The second operand is a signed
LEB128 integer that represents a byte displacement B.
*Note that D may not be in the current compilation unit.*
*The first operand interpretation is exactly like that for*
``DW_FORM_ref_addr``\ *.*
The address space identifier AS is defined as the one corresponding to the
target architecture specific default address space.
The address size S is defined as the address bit size of the target
architecture specific address space corresponding to AS.
An implicit location storage LS is created with the debugging information
entry D, address space AS, and size of S.
It pushes a location description L that comprises one implicit location
description SL on the stack. SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
It is an evaluation error if a ``DW_OP_deref*`` operation pops a location
description L', and retrieves S bits, such that any retrieved bits come from
an implicit location storage that is the same as LS, unless both the
following conditions are met:
1. All retrieved bits come from an implicit location description that
refers to an implicit location storage that is the same as LS.
*Note that all bits do not have to come from the same implicit location
description, as L' may involve composite location descriptors.*
2. The bits come from consecutive ascending offsets within their respective
implicit location storage.
*These rules are equivalent to retrieving the complete contents of LS.*
If both the above conditions are met, then the value V pushed by the
``DW_OP_deref*`` operation is an implicit pointer value IPV with a target
architecture specific address space of AS, a debugging information entry of
D, and a base type of T. If AS is the target architecture default address
space, then T is the generic type. Otherwise, T is a target architecture
specific integral type with a bit size equal to S.
If IPV is either implicitly converted to a location description (only done
if AS is the target architecture default address space) or used by
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` (only done if the address space popped by
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` is AS), then the resulting location
description RL is:
* If D has a ``DW_AT_location`` attribute, the DWARF expression E from the
``DW_AT_location`` attribute is evaluated with the current context, except
that the result kind is a location description, the compilation unit is
the one that contains D, the object is unspecified, and the initial stack
is empty. RL is the expression result.
*Note that E is evaluated with the context of the expression accessing
IPV, and not the context of the expression that contained the*
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` *or* ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``
*operation that created L.*
* If D has a ``DW_AT_const_value`` attribute, then an implicit location
storage RLS is created from the ``DW_AT_const_value`` attribute's value
with a size matching the size of the ``DW_AT_const_value`` attribute's
value. RL comprises one implicit location description SRL. SRL specifies
RLS with a bit offset of 0.
.. note::
If using ``DW_AT_const_value`` for variables and formal parameters is
deprecated and instead ``DW_AT_location`` is used with an implicit
location description, then this rule would not be required.
* Otherwise, it is an evaluation error.
The bit offset of RL is updated as if the ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset_uconst B``
operation was applied.
If a ``DW_OP_stack_value`` operation pops a value that is the same as IPV,
then it pushes a location description that is the same as L.
It is an evaluation error if LS or IPV is accessed in any other manner.
*The restrictions on how an implicit pointer location description created
by* ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` *and* ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``
*can be used are to simplify the DWARF consumer. Similarly, for an implicit
pointer value created by* ``DW_OP_deref*`` *and* ``DW_OP_stack_value``\ .*
4. ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` has two operands that are the same as
for ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer``.
It pops one stack entry that must be an integral type value that represents
a target architecture specific address space identifier AS.
The location description L that is pushed on the stack is the same as for
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer``, except that the address space identifier used is
AS.
The DWARF expression is ill-formed if AS is not one of the values defined by
the target architecture specific ``DW_ASPACE_*`` values.
.. note::
This definition of ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` may change when
full support for address classes is added as required for languages such
as OpenCL/SyCL.
*Typically a* ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` *or*
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` *operation is used in a DWARF expression
E*\ :sub:`1` *of a* ``DW_TAG_variable`` *or* ``DW_TAG_formal_parameter``
*debugging information entry D*\ :sub:`1`\ *'s* ``DW_AT_location`` *attribute.
The debugging information entry referenced by the* ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer``
*or* ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` *operations is typically itself a*
``DW_TAG_variable`` *or* ``DW_TAG_formal_parameter`` *debugging information
entry D*\ :sub:`2` *whose* ``DW_AT_location`` *attribute gives a second DWARF
expression E*\ :sub:`2`\ *.*
*D*\ :sub:`1` *and E*\ :sub:`1` *are describing the location of a pointer type
object. D*\ :sub:`2` *and E*\ :sub:`2` *are describing the location of the
object pointed to by that pointer object.*
*However, D*\ :sub:`2` *may be any debugging information entry that contains a*
``DW_AT_location`` *or* ``DW_AT_const_value`` *attribute (for example,*
``DW_TAG_dwarf_procedure``\ *). By using E*\ :sub:`2`\ *, a consumer can
reconstruct the value of the object when asked to dereference the pointer
described by E*\ :sub:`1` *which contains the* ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` or
``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer`` *operation.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-composite-location-description-operations:
Composite Location Description Operations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A composite location storage represents an object or value which may be
contained in part of another location storage or contained in parts of more
than one location storage.
Each part has a part location description L and a part bit size S. L can have
one or more single location descriptions SL. If there are more than one SL then
that indicates that part is located in more than one place. The bits of each
place of the part comprise S contiguous bits from the location storage LS
specified by SL starting at the bit offset specified by SL. All the bits must
be within the size of LS or the DWARF expression is ill-formed.
A composite location storage can have zero or more parts. The parts are
contiguous such that the zero-based location storage bit index will range over
each part with no gaps between them. Therefore, the size of a composite location
storage is the sum of the size of its parts. The DWARF expression is ill-formed
if the size of the contiguous location storage is larger than the size of the
memory location storage corresponding to the largest target architecture
specific address space.
A composite location description specifies a composite location storage. The bit
offset corresponds to a bit position within the composite location storage.
There are operations that create a composite location storage.
There are other operations that allow a composite location storage to be
incrementally created. Each part is created by a separate operation. There may
be one or more operations to create the final composite location storage. A
series of such operations describes the parts of the composite location storage
that are in the order that the associated part operations are executed.
To support incremental creation, a composite location storage can be in an
incomplete state. When an incremental operation operates on an incomplete
composite location storage, it adds a new part, otherwise it creates a new
composite location storage. The ``DW_OP_LLVM_piece_end`` operation explicitly
makes an incomplete composite location storage complete.
A composite location description that specifies a composite location storage
that is incomplete is termed an incomplete composite location description. A
composite location description that specifies a composite location storage that
is complete is termed a complete composite location description.
If the top stack entry is a location description that has one incomplete
composite location description SL after the execution of an operation expression
has completed, SL is converted to a complete composite location description.
*Note that this conversion does not happen after the completion of an operation
expression that is evaluated on the same stack by the* ``DW_OP_call*``
*operations. Such executions are not a separate evaluation of an operation
expression, but rather the continued evaluation of the same operation expression
that contains the* ``DW_OP_call*`` *operation.*
If a stack entry is required to be a location description L, but L has an
incomplete composite location description, then the DWARF expression is
ill-formed. The exception is for the operations involved in incrementally
creating a composite location description as described below.
*Note that a DWARF operation expression may arbitrarily compose composite
location descriptions from any other location description, including those that
have multiple single location descriptions, and those that have composite
location descriptions.*
*The incremental composite location description operations are defined to be
compatible with the definitions in DWARF Version 5.*
1. ``DW_OP_piece``
``DW_OP_piece`` has a single unsigned LEB128 integer that represents a byte
size S.
The action is based on the context:
* If the stack is empty, then a location description L comprised of one
incomplete composite location description SL is pushed on the stack.
An incomplete composite location storage LS is created with a single part
P. P specifies a location description PL and has a bit size of S scaled by
8 (the byte size). PL is comprised of one undefined location description
PSL.
SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
* Otherwise, if the top stack entry is a location description L comprised of
one incomplete composite location description SL, then the incomplete
composite location storage LS that SL specifies is updated to append a new
part P. P specifies a location description PL and has a bit size of S
scaled by 8 (the byte size). PL is comprised of one undefined location
description PSL. L is left on the stack.
* Otherwise, if the top stack entry is a location description or can be
converted to one, then it is popped and treated as a part location
description PL. Then:
* If the top stack entry (after popping PL) is a location description L
comprised of one incomplete composite location description SL, then the
incomplete composite location storage LS that SL specifies is updated to
append a new part P. P specifies the location description PL and has a
bit size of S scaled by 8 (the byte size). L is left on the stack.
* Otherwise, a location description L comprised of one incomplete
composite location description SL is pushed on the stack.
An incomplete composite location storage LS is created with a single
part P. P specifies the location description PL and has a bit size of S
scaled by 8 (the byte size).
SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
* Otherwise, the DWARF expression is ill-formed
*Many compilers store a single variable in sets of registers or store a
variable partially in memory and partially in registers.* ``DW_OP_piece``
*provides a way of describing where a part of a variable is located.*
*If a non-0 byte displacement is required, the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset``
*operation can be used to update the location description before using it as
the part location description of a* ``DW_OP_piece`` *operation.*
*The evaluation rules for the* ``DW_OP_piece`` *operation allow it to be
compatible with the DWARF Version 5 definition.*
.. note::
Since these extensions allow location descriptions to be entries on the
stack, a simpler operation to create composite location descriptions could
be defined. For example, just one operation that specifies how many parts,
and pops pairs of stack entries for the part size and location
description. Not only would this be a simpler operation and avoid the
complexities of incomplete composite location descriptions, but it may
also have a smaller encoding in practice. However, the desire for
compatibility with DWARF Version 5 is likely a stronger consideration.
2. ``DW_OP_bit_piece``
``DW_OP_bit_piece`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128
integer that represents the part bit size S. The second is an unsigned
LEB128 integer that represents a bit displacement B.
The action is the same as for ``DW_OP_piece``, except that any part created
has the bit size S, and the location description PL of any created part is
updated as if the ``DW_OP_constu B; DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` operations were
applied.
``DW_OP_bit_piece`` *is used instead of* ``DW_OP_piece`` *when the piece to
be assembled is not byte-sized or is not at the start of the part location
description.*
*If a computed bit displacement is required, the* ``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset``
*operation can be used to update the location description before using it as
the part location description of a* ``DW_OP_bit_piece`` *operation.*
.. note::
The bit offset operand is not needed as ``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset`` can be
used on the part's location description.
3. ``DW_OP_LLVM_piece_end`` *New*
If the top stack entry is not a location description L comprised of one
incomplete composite location description SL, then the DWARF expression is
ill-formed.
Otherwise, the incomplete composite location storage LS specified by SL is
updated to be a complete composite location description with the same parts.
4. ``DW_OP_LLVM_extend`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_extend`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned LEB128
integer that represents the element bit size S. The second is an unsigned
LEB128 integer that represents a count C.
It pops one stack entry that must be a location description and is treated
as the part location description PL.
A location description L comprised of one complete composite location
description SL is pushed on the stack.
A complete composite location storage LS is created with C identical parts
P. Each P specifies PL and has a bit size of S.
SL specifies LS with a bit offset of 0.
The DWARF expression is ill-formed if the element bit size or count are 0.
5. ``DW_OP_LLVM_select_bit_piece`` *New*
``DW_OP_LLVM_select_bit_piece`` has two operands. The first is an unsigned
LEB128 integer that represents the element bit size S. The second is an
unsigned LEB128 integer that represents a count C.
It pops three stack entries. The first must be an integral type value that
represents a bit mask value M. The second must be a location description
that represents the one-location description L1. The third must be a
location description that represents the zero-location description L0.
A complete composite location storage LS is created with C parts P\ :sub:`N`
ordered in ascending N from 0 to C-1 inclusive. Each P\ :sub:`N` specifies
location description PL\ :sub:`N` and has a bit size of S.
PL\ :sub:`N` is as if the ``DW_OP_LLVM_bit_offset N*S`` operation was
applied to PLX\ :sub:`N`\ .
PLX\ :sub:`N` is the same as L0 if the N\ :sup:`th` least significant bit of
M is a zero, otherwise it is the same as L1.
A location description L comprised of one complete composite location
description SL is pushed on the stack. SL specifies LS with a bit offset of
0.
The DWARF expression is ill-formed if S or C are 0, or if the bit size of M
is less than C.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-location-list-expressions:
DWARF Location List Expressions
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*To meet the needs of recent computer architectures and optimization techniques,
debugging information must be able to describe the location of an object whose
location changes over the object’s lifetime, and may reside at multiple
locations during parts of an object's lifetime. Location list expressions are
used in place of operation expressions whenever the object whose location is
being described has these requirements.*
A location list expression consists of a series of location list entries. Each
location list entry is one of the following kinds:
*Bounded location description*
This kind of location list entry provides an operation expression that
evaluates to the location description of an object that is valid over a
lifetime bounded by a starting and ending address. The starting address is the
lowest address of the address range over which the location is valid. The
ending address is the address of the first location past the highest address
of the address range.
The location list entry matches when the current program location is within
the given range.
There are several kinds of bounded location description entries which differ
in the way that they specify the starting and ending addresses.
*Default location description*
This kind of location list entry provides an operation expression that
evaluates to the location description of an object that is valid when no
bounded location description entry applies.
The location list entry matches when the current program location is not
within the range of any bounded location description entry.
*Base address*
This kind of location list entry provides an address to be used as the base
address for beginning and ending address offsets given in certain kinds of
bounded location description entries. The applicable base address of a bounded
location description entry is the address specified by the closest preceding
base address entry in the same location list. If there is no preceding base
address entry, then the applicable base address defaults to the base address
of the compilation unit (see DWARF Version 5 section 3.1.1).
In the case of a compilation unit where all of the machine code is contained
in a single contiguous section, no base address entry is needed.
*End-of-list*
This kind of location list entry marks the end of the location list
expression.
The address ranges defined by the bounded location description entries of a
location list expression may overlap. When they do, they describe a situation in
which an object exists simultaneously in more than one place.
If all of the address ranges in a given location list expression do not
collectively cover the entire range over which the object in question is
defined, and there is no following default location description entry, it is
assumed that the object is not available for the portion of the range that is
not covered.
The result of the evaluation of a DWARF location list expression is:
* If the current program location is not specified, then it is an evaluation
error.
.. note::
If the location list only has a single default entry, should that be
considered a match if there is no program location? If there are non-default
entries then it seems it has to be an evaluation error when there is no
program location as that indicates the location depends on the program
location which is not known.
* If there are no matching location list entries, then the result is a location
description that comprises one undefined location description.
* Otherwise, the operation expression E of each matching location list entry is
evaluated with the current context, except that the result kind is a location
description, the object is unspecified, and the initial stack is empty. The
location list entry result is the location description returned by the
evaluation of E.
The result is a location description that is comprised of the union of the
single location descriptions of the location description result of each
matching location list entry.
A location list expression can only be used as the value of a debugger
information entry attribute that is encoded using class ``loclist`` or
``loclistsptr`` (see DWARF Version 5 section 7.5.5). The value of the attribute
provides an index into a separate object file section called ``.debug_loclists``
or ``.debug_loclists.dwo`` (for split DWARF object files) that contains the
location list entries.
A ``DW_OP_call*`` and ``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` operation can be used to
specify a debugger information entry attribute that has a location list
expression. Several debugger information entry attributes allow DWARF
expressions that are evaluated with an initial stack that includes a location
description that may originate from the evaluation of a location list
expression.
*This location list representation, the* ``loclist`` *and* ``loclistsptr``
*class, and the related* ``DW_AT_loclists_base`` *attribute are new in DWARF
Version 5. Together they eliminate most, or all of the code object relocations
previously needed for location list expressions.*
.. note::
The rest of this section is the same as DWARF Version 5 section 2.6.2.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-segment_addresses:
Segmented Addresses
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This augments DWARF Version 5 section 2.12.
DWARF address classes are used for source languages that have the concept of
memory spaces. They are used in the ``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute for
pointer type, reference type, subprogram, and subprogram type debugger
information entries.
Each DWARF address class is conceptually a separate source language memory space
with its own lifetime and aliasing rules. DWARF address classes are used to
specify the source language memory spaces that pointer type and reference type
values refer, and to specify the source language memory space in which variables
are allocated.
The set of currently defined source language DWARF address classes, together
with source language mappings, is given in
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-address-class-table`.
Vendor defined source language address classes may be defined using codes in the
range ``DW_ADDR_LLVM_lo_user`` to ``DW_ADDR_LLVM_hi_user``.
.. table:: Address class
:name: amdgpu-dwarf-address-class-table
========================= ============ ========= ========= =========
Address Class Name Meaning C/C++ OpenCL CUDA/HIP
========================= ============ ========= ========= =========
``DW_ADDR_none`` generic *default* generic *default*
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_global`` global global
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_constant`` constant constant constant
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_group`` thread-group local shared
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_private`` thread private
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_lo_user``
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_hi_user``
========================= ============ ========= ========= =========
DWARF address spaces correspond to target architecture specific linear
addressable memory areas. They are used in DWARF expression location
descriptions to describe in which target architecture specific memory area data
resides.
*Target architecture specific DWARF address spaces may correspond to hardware
supported facilities such as memory utilizing base address registers, scratchpad
memory, and memory with special interleaving. The size of addresses in these
address spaces may vary. Their access and allocation may be hardware managed
with each thread or group of threads having access to independent storage. For
these reasons they may have properties that do not allow them to be viewed as
part of the unified global virtual address space accessible by all threads.*
*It is target architecture specific whether multiple DWARF address spaces are
supported and how source language DWARF address classes map to target
architecture specific DWARF address spaces. A target architecture may map
multiple source language DWARF address classes to the same target architecture
specific DWARF address class. Optimization may determine that variable lifetime
and access pattern allows them to be allocated in faster scratchpad memory
represented by a different DWARF address space.*
Although DWARF address space identifiers are target architecture specific,
``DW_ASPACE_none`` is a common address space supported by all target
architectures.
DWARF address space identifiers are used by:
* The DWARF expression operations: ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_bregx``,
``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``, ``DW_OP_LLVM_implicit_aspace_pointer``,
and ``DW_OP_xderef*``.
* The CFI instructions: ``DW_CFA_LLVM_def_aspace_cfa`` and
``DW_CFA_LLVM_def_aspace_cfa_sf``.
.. note::
With the definition of DWARF address classes and DWARF address spaces in these
extensions, DWARF Version 5 table 2.7 needs to be updated. It seems it is an
example of DWARF address spaces and not DWARF address classes.
.. note::
With the expanded support for DWARF address spaces in these extensions, it may
be worth examining if DWARF segments can be eliminated and DWARF address
spaces used instead.
That may involve extending DWARF address spaces to also be used to specify
code locations. In target architectures that use different memory areas for
code and data this would seem a natural use for DWARF address spaces. This
would allow DWARF expression location descriptions to be used to describe the
location of subprograms and entry points that are used in expressions
involving subprogram pointer type values.
Currently, DWARF expressions assume data and code resides in the same default
DWARF address space, and only the address ranges in DWARF location list
entries and in the ``.debug_aranges`` section for accelerated access for
addresses allow DWARF segments to be used to distinguish.
.. note::
Currently, DWARF defines address class values as being target architecture
specific. It is unclear how language specific memory spaces are intended to be
represented in DWARF using these.
For example, OpenCL defines memory spaces (called address spaces in OpenCL)
for ``global``, ``local``, ``constant``, and ``private``. These are part of
the type system and are modifiers to pointer types. In addition, OpenCL
defines ``generic`` pointers that can reference either the ``global``,
``local``, or ``private`` memory spaces. To support the OpenCL language the
debugger would want to support casting pointers between the ``generic`` and
other memory spaces, querying what memory space a ``generic`` pointer value is
currently referencing, and possibly using pointer casting to form an address
for a specific memory space out of an integral value.
The method to use to dereference a pointer type or reference type value is
defined in DWARF expressions using ``DW_OP_xderef*`` which uses a target
architecture specific address space.
DWARF defines the ``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute on pointer type and
reference type debugger information entries. It specifies the method to use to
dereference them. Why is the value of this not the same as the address space
value used in ``DW_OP_xderef*``? In both cases it is target architecture
specific and the architecture presumably will use the same set of methods to
dereference pointers in both cases.
Since ``DW_AT_address_class`` uses a target architecture specific value, it
cannot in general capture the source language memory space type modifier
concept. On some architectures all source language memory space modifiers may
actually use the same method for dereferencing pointers.
One possibility is for DWARF to add an ``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type``
debugger information entry type modifier that can be applied to a pointer type
and reference type. The ``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute could be re-defined
to not be target architecture specific and instead define generalized language
values (as presented above for DWARF address classes in the table
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-address-class-table`) that will support OpenCL and other
languages using memory spaces. The ``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute could be
defined to not be applied to pointer types or reference types, but instead
only to the new ``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type`` type modifier debugger
information entry.
If a pointer type or reference type is not modified by
``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type`` or if ``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type``
has no ``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute, then the pointer type or reference
type would be defined to use the ``DW_ADDR_none`` address class as currently.
Since modifiers can be chained, it would need to be defined if multiple
``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type`` modifiers were legal, and if so if the
outermost one is the one that takes precedence.
A target architecture implementation that supports multiple address spaces
would need to map ``DW_ADDR_none`` appropriately to support CUDA-like
languages that have no address classes in the type system but do support
variable allocation in address classes. Such variable allocation would result
in the variable's location description needing an address space.
The approach presented in :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-address-class-table` is to define
the default ``DW_ADDR_none`` to be the generic address class and not the
global address class. This matches how CLANG and LLVM have added support for
CUDA-like languages on top of existing C++ language support. This allows all
addresses to be generic by default which matches CUDA-like languages.
An alternative approach is to define ``DW_ADDR_none`` as being the global
address class and then change ``DW_ADDR_LLVM_global`` to
``DW_ADDR_LLVM_generic``. This would match the reality that languages that do
not support multiple memory spaces only have one default global memory space.
Generally, in these languages if they expose that the target architecture
supports multiple address spaces, the default one is still the global memory
space. Then a language that does support multiple memory spaces has to
explicitly indicate which pointers have the added ability to reference more
than the global memory space. However, compilers generating DWARF for
CUDA-like languages would then have to define every CUDA-like language pointer
type or reference type using ``DW_TAG_LLVM_address_class_type`` with a
``DW_AT_address_class`` attribute of ``DW_ADDR_LLVM_generic`` to match the
language semantics.
A new ``DW_AT_LLVM_address_space`` attribute could be defined that can be
applied to pointer type, reference type, subprogram, and subprogram type to
describe how objects having the given type are dereferenced or called (the
role that ``DW_AT_address_class`` currently provides). The values of
``DW_AT_address_space`` would be target architecture specific and the same as
used in ``DW_OP_xderef*``.
.. note::
Some additional changes will be made to support languages such as OpenCL/SyCL
that allow address class pointer casting and queries.
This requires the compiler to provide the mapping from address space to
address class which may be runtime and not target architecture dependent. Some
implementations may have a one-to-one mapping from source language address
class to target architecture address space, and some may have a many-to-one
mapping which requires knowledge of the address class when determining if
pointer address class casts are allowed.
The changes will likely add an attribute that has an expression provided by
the compiler to map from address class to address space. The
``DW_OP_implicit_pointer`` and ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_implicit_pointer``
operations may be changed as the current IPV definition may not provide enough
information when used to cast between address classes. Other attributes and
operations may be needed. The legal casts between address classes may need to
be defined on a per language address class basis.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-debugging-information-entry-attributes:
Debugging Information Entry Attributes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This section provides changes to existing debugger information entry
attributes and defines attributes added by these extensions. These would be
incorporated into the appropriate DWARF Version 5 chapter 2 sections.
1. ``DW_AT_location``
Any debugging information entry describing a data object (which includes
variables and parameters) or common blocks may have a ``DW_AT_location``
attribute, whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context
elements corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which
the user is focused, if any. The result of the evaluation is the location
description of the base of the data object.
See :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-control-flow-operations` for special evaluation rules
used by the ``DW_OP_call*`` operations.
.. note::
Delete the description of how the ``DW_OP_call*`` operations evaluate a
``DW_AT_location`` attribute as that is now described in the operations.
.. note::
See the discussion about the ``DW_AT_location`` attribute in the
``DW_OP_call*`` operation. Having each attribute only have a single
purpose and single execution semantics seems desirable. It makes it easier
for the consumer that no longer have to track the context. It makes it
easier for the producer as it can rely on a single semantics for each
attribute.
For that reason, limiting the ``DW_AT_location`` attribute to only
supporting evaluating the location description of an object, and using a
different attribute and encoding class for the evaluation of DWARF
expression *procedures* on the same operation expression stack seems
desirable.
2. ``DW_AT_const_value``
.. note::
Could deprecate using the ``DW_AT_const_value`` attribute for
``DW_TAG_variable`` or ``DW_TAG_formal_parameter`` debugger information
entries that have been optimized to a constant. Instead,
``DW_AT_location`` could be used with a DWARF expression that produces an
implicit location description now that any location description can be
used within a DWARF expression. This allows the ``DW_OP_call*`` operations
to be used to push the location description of any variable regardless of
how it is optimized.
3. ``DW_AT_frame_base``
A ``DW_TAG_subprogram`` or ``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugger information entry
may have a ``DW_AT_frame_base`` attribute, whose value is a DWARF expression
E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context
elements corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which
the user is focused, if any.
The DWARF is ill-formed if E contains an ``DW_OP_fbreg`` operation, or the
resulting location description L is not comprised of one single location
description SL.
If SL a register location description for register R, then L is replaced
with the result of evaluating a ``DW_OP_bregx R, 0`` operation. This
computes the frame base memory location description in the target
architecture default address space.
*This allows the more compact* ``DW_OPreg*`` *to be used instead of*
``DW_OP_breg* 0``\ *.*
.. note::
This rule could be removed and require the producer to create the required
location description directly using ``DW_OP_call_frame_cfa``,
``DW_OP_breg*``, or ``DW_OP_LLVM_aspace_bregx``. This would also then
allow a target to implement the call frames within a large register.
Otherwise, the DWARF is ill-formed if SL is not a memory location
description in any of the target architecture specific address spaces.
The resulting L is the *frame base* for the subprogram or entry point.
*Typically, E will use the* ``DW_OP_call_frame_cfa`` *operation or be a
stack pointer register plus or minus some offset.*
4. ``DW_AT_data_member_location``
For a ``DW_AT_data_member_location`` attribute there are two cases:
1. If the attribute is an integer constant B, it provides the offset in
bytes from the beginning of the containing entity.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating a
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset B`` operation with an initial stack comprising the
location description of the beginning of the containing entity. The
result of the evaluation is the location description of the base of the
member entry.
*If the beginning of the containing entity is not byte aligned, then the
beginning of the member entry has the same bit displacement within a
byte.*
2. Otherwise, the attribute must be a DWARF expression E which is evaluated
with a context that has a result kind of a location description, an
unspecified object, the compilation unit that contains E, an initial
stack comprising the location description of the beginning of the
containing entity, and other context elements corresponding to the
source language thread of execution upon which the user is focused, if
any. The result of the evaluation is the location description of the
base of the member entry.
.. note::
The beginning of the containing entity can now be any location
description, including those with more than one single location
description, and those with single location descriptions that are of any
kind and have any bit offset.
5. ``DW_AT_use_location``
The ``DW_TAG_ptr_to_member_type`` debugging information entry has a
``DW_AT_use_location`` attribute whose value is a DWARF expression E. It is
used to compute the location description of the member of the class to which
the pointer to member entry points.
*The method used to find the location description of a given member of a
class, structure, or union is common to any instance of that class,
structure, or union and to any instance of the pointer to member type. The
method is thus associated with the pointer to member type, rather than with
each object that has a pointer to member type.*
The ``DW_AT_use_location`` DWARF expression is used in conjunction with the
location description for a particular object of the given pointer to member
type and for a particular structure or class instance.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an initial stack comprising two entries,
and other context elements corresponding to the source language thread of
execution upon which the user is focused, if any. The first stack entry is
the value of the pointer to member object itself. The second stack entry is
the location description of the base of the entire class, structure, or
union instance containing the member whose location is being calculated. The
result of the evaluation is the location description of the member of the
class to which the pointer to member entry points.
6. ``DW_AT_data_location``
The ``DW_AT_data_location`` attribute may be used with any type that
provides one or more levels of hidden indirection and/or run-time parameters
in its representation. Its value is a DWARF operation expression E which
computes the location description of the data for an object. When this
attribute is omitted, the location description of the data is the same as
the location description of the object.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an object that is the location
description of the data descriptor, the compilation unit that contains E, an
empty initial stack, and other context elements corresponding to the source
language thread of execution upon which the user is focused, if any. The
result of the evaluation is the location description of the base of the
member entry.
*E will typically involve an operation expression that begins with a*
``DW_OP_push_object_address`` *operation which loads the location
description of the object which can then serve as a description in
subsequent calculation.*
.. note::
Since ``DW_AT_data_member_location``, ``DW_AT_use_location``, and
``DW_AT_vtable_elem_location`` allow both operation expressions and
location list expressions, why does ``DW_AT_data_location`` not allow
both? In all cases they apply to data objects so less likely that
optimization would cause different operation expressions for different
program location ranges. But if supporting for some then should be for
all.
It seems odd this attribute is not the same as
``DW_AT_data_member_location`` in having an initial stack with the
location description of the object since the expression has to need it.
7. ``DW_AT_vtable_elem_location``
An entry for a virtual function also has a ``DW_AT_vtable_elem_location``
attribute whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an initial stack comprising the location
description of the object of the enclosing type, and other context elements
corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which the user
is focused, if any. The result of the evaluation is the location description
of the slot for the function within the virtual function table for the
enclosing class.
8. ``DW_AT_static_link``
If a ``DW_TAG_subprogram`` or ``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugger information
entry is lexically nested, it may have a ``DW_AT_static_link`` attribute,
whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context
elements corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which
the user is focused, if any. The result of the evaluation is the location
description L of the *canonical frame address* (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`) of the relevant call frame of
the subprogram instance that immediately lexically encloses the current call
frame's subprogram or entry point.
The DWARF is ill-formed if L is is not comprised of one memory location
description for one of the target architecture specific address spaces.
9. ``DW_AT_return_addr``
A ``DW_TAG_subprogram``, ``DW_TAG_inlined_subroutine``, or
``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugger information entry may have a
``DW_AT_return_addr`` attribute, whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context
elements corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which
the user is focused, if any. The result of the evaluation is the location
description L of the place where the return address for the current call
frame's subprogram or entry point is stored.
The DWARF is ill-formed if L is not comprised of one memory location
description for one of the target architecture specific address spaces.
.. note::
It is unclear why ``DW_TAG_inlined_subroutine`` has a
``DW_AT_return_addr`` attribute but not a ``DW_AT_frame_base`` or
``DW_AT_static_link`` attribute. Seems it would either have all of them or
none. Since inlined subprograms do not have a call frame it seems they
would have none of these attributes.
10. ``DW_AT_call_value``, ``DW_AT_call_data_location``, and
``DW_AT_call_data_value``
A ``DW_TAG_call_site_parameter`` debugger information entry may have a
``DW_AT_call_value`` attribute, whose value is a DWARF operation expression
E\ :sub:`1`\ .
The result of the ``DW_AT_call_value`` attribute is obtained by evaluating
E\ :sub:`1` with a context that has a result kind of a value, an unspecified
object, the compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and
other context elements corresponding to the source language thread of
execution upon which the user is focused, if any. The resulting value V\
:sub:`1` is the value of the parameter at the time of the call made by the
call site.
For parameters passed by reference, where the code passes a pointer to a
location which contains the parameter, or for reference type parameters, the
``DW_TAG_call_site_parameter`` debugger information entry may also have a
``DW_AT_call_data_location`` attribute whose value is a DWARF operation
expression E\ :sub:`2`\ , and a ``DW_AT_call_data_value`` attribute whose
value is a DWARF operation expression E\ :sub:`3`\ .
The value of the ``DW_AT_call_data_location`` attribute is obtained by
evaluating E\ :sub:`2` with a context that has a result kind of a location
description, an unspecified object, the compilation unit that contains E, an
empty initial stack, and other context elements corresponding to the source
language thread of execution upon which the user is focused, if any. The
resulting location description L\ :sub:`2` is the location where the
referenced parameter lives during the call made by the call site. If E\
:sub:`2` would just be a ``DW_OP_push_object_address``, then the
``DW_AT_call_data_location`` attribute may be omitted.
The value of the ``DW_AT_call_data_value`` attribute is obtained by
evaluating E\ :sub:`3` with a context that has a result kind of a value, an
unspecified object, the compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial
stack, and other context elements corresponding to the source language
thread of execution upon which the user is focused, if any. The resulting
value V\ :sub:`3` is the value in L\ :sub:`2` at the time of the call made
by the call site.
The result of these attributes is undefined if the current call frame is
not for the subprogram containing the ``DW_TAG_call_site_parameter``
debugger information entry or the current program location is not for the
call site containing the ``DW_TAG_call_site_parameter`` debugger information
entry in the current call frame.
*The consumer may have to virtually unwind to the call site (see*
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`\ *) in order to evaluate these
attributes. This will ensure the source language thread of execution upon
which the user is focused corresponds to the call site needed to evaluate
the expression.*
If it is not possible to avoid the expressions of these attributes from
accessing registers or memory locations that might be clobbered by the
subprogram being called by the call site, then the associated attribute
should not be provided.
*The reason for the restriction is that the parameter may need to be
accessed during the execution of the callee. The consumer may virtually
unwind from the called subprogram back to the caller and then evaluate the
attribute expressions. The call frame information (see*
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information`\ *) will not be able to restore
registers that have been clobbered, and clobbered memory will no longer have
the value at the time of the call.*
11. ``DW_AT_LLVM_lanes`` *New*
For languages that are implemented using a SIMD or SIMT execution model, a
``DW_TAG_subprogram``, ``DW_TAG_inlined_subroutine``, or
``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugger information entry may have a
``DW_AT_LLVM_lanes`` attribute whose value is an integer constant that is
the number of lanes per thread. This is the static number of lanes per
thread. It is not the dynamic number of lanes with which the thread was
initiated, for example, due to smaller or partial work-groups.
If not present, the default value of 1 is used.
The DWARF is ill-formed if the value is 0.
12. ``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` *New*
For languages that are implemented using a SIMD or SIMT execution model, a
``DW_TAG_subprogram``, ``DW_TAG_inlined_subroutine``, or
``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugging information entry may have a
``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` attribute whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a location description, an unspecified object, the
compilation unit that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context
elements corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which
the user is focused, if any.
The resulting location description L is for a thread lane count sized vector
of generic type elements. The thread lane count is the value of the
``DW_AT_LLVM_lanes`` attribute. Each element holds the conceptual program
location of the corresponding lane, where the least significant element
corresponds to the first target architecture specific lane identifier and so
forth. If the lane was not active when the current subprogram was called,
its element is an undefined location description.
``DW_AT_LLVM_lane_pc`` *allows the compiler to indicate conceptually where
each lane of a SIMT thread is positioned even when it is in divergent
control flow that is not active.*
*Typically, the result is a location description with one composite location
description with each part being a location description with either one
undefined location description or one memory location description.*
If not present, the thread is not being used in a SIMT manner, and the
thread's current program location is used.
13. ``DW_AT_LLVM_active_lane`` *New*
For languages that are implemented using a SIMD or SIMT execution model, a
``DW_TAG_subprogram``, ``DW_TAG_inlined_subroutine``, or
``DW_TAG_entry_point`` debugger information entry may have a
``DW_AT_LLVM_active_lane`` attribute whose value is a DWARF expression E.
The result of the attribute is obtained by evaluating E with a context that
has a result kind of a value, an unspecified object, the compilation unit
that contains E, an empty initial stack, and other context elements
corresponding to the source language thread of execution upon which the user
is focused, if any.
The DWARF is ill-formed if the resulting value V is not an integral value.
The resulting V is a bit mask of active lanes for the current program
location. The N\ :sup:`th` least significant bit of the mask corresponds to
the N\ :sup:`th` lane. If the bit is 1 the lane is active, otherwise it is
inactive.
*Some targets may update the target architecture execution mask for regions
of code that must execute with different sets of lanes than the current
active lanes. For example, some code must execute with all lanes made
temporarily active.* ``DW_AT_LLVM_active_lane`` *allows the compiler to
provide the means to determine the source language active lanes.*
If not present and ``DW_AT_LLVM_lanes`` is greater than 1, then the target
architecture execution mask is used.
14. ``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size`` *New*
A ``DW_TAG_base_type`` debugger information entry for a base type T may have
a ``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size`` attribute whose value is an integer constant
that is the vector type size N.
The representation of a vector base type is as N contiguous elements, each
one having the representation of a base type T' that is the same as T
without the ``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size`` attribute.
If a ``DW_TAG_base_type`` debugger information entry does not have a
``DW_AT_LLVM_vector_size`` attribute, then the base type is not a vector
type.
The DWARF is ill-formed if N is not greater than 0.
.. note::
LLVM has mention of a non-upstreamed debugger information entry that is
intended to support vector types. However, that was not for a base type so
would not be suitable as the type of a stack value entry. But perhaps that
could be replaced by using this attribute.
15. ``DW_AT_LLVM_augmentation`` *New*
A ``DW_TAG_compile_unit`` debugger information entry for a compilation unit
may have a ``DW_AT_LLVM_augmentation`` attribute, whose value is an
augmentation string.
*The augmentation string allows producers to indicate that there is
additional vendor or target specific information in the debugging
information entries. For example, this might be information about the
version of vendor specific extensions that are being used.*
If not present, or if the string is empty, then the compilation unit has no
augmentation string.
The format for the augmentation string is:
| ``[``\ *vendor*\ ``:v``\ *X*\ ``.``\ *Y*\ [\ ``:``\ *options*\ ]\ ``]``\ *
Where *vendor* is the producer, ``vX.Y`` specifies the major X and minor Y
version number of the extensions used, and *options* is an optional string
providing additional information about the extensions. The version number
must conform to semantic versioning [:ref:`SEMVER <amdgpu-dwarf-SEMVER>`].
The *options* string must not contain the "\ ``]``\ " character.
For example:
::
[abc:v0.0][def:v1.2:feature-a=on,feature-b=3]
Program Scope Entities
----------------------
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-language-names:
Unit Entities
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This augments DWARF Version 5 section 3.1.1 and Table 3.1.
Additional language codes defined for use with the ``DW_AT_language`` attribute
are defined in :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-language-names-table`.
.. table:: Language Names
:name: amdgpu-dwarf-language-names-table
==================== =============================
Language Name Meaning
==================== =============================
``DW_LANG_LLVM_HIP`` HIP Language.
==================== =============================
The HIP language [:ref:`HIP <amdgpu-dwarf-HIP>`] can be supported by extending
the C++ language.
Other Debugger Information
--------------------------
Accelerated Access
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-lookup-by-name:
Lookup By Name
++++++++++++++
Contents of the Name Index
##########################
.. note::
The following provides changes to DWARF Version 5 section 6.1.1.1.
The rule for debugger information entries included in the name index in the
optional ``.debug_names`` section is extended to also include named
``DW_TAG_variable`` debugging information entries with a ``DW_AT_location``
attribute that includes a ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address`` operation.
The name index must contain an entry for each debugging information entry that
defines a named subprogram, label, variable, type, or namespace, subject to the
following rules:
* ``DW_TAG_variable`` debugging information entries with a ``DW_AT_location``
attribute that includes a ``DW_OP_addr``, ``DW_OP_LLVM_form_aspace_address``,
or ``DW_OP_form_tls_address`` operation are included; otherwise, they are
excluded.
Data Representation of the Name Index
#####################################
Section Header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. note::
The following provides an addition to DWARF Version 5 section 6.1.1.4.1 item
14 ``augmentation_string``.
A null-terminated UTF-8 vendor specific augmentation string, which provides
additional information about the contents of this index. If provided, the
recommended format for augmentation string is:
| ``[``\ *vendor*\ ``:v``\ *X*\ ``.``\ *Y*\ [\ ``:``\ *options*\ ]\ ``]``\ *
Where *vendor* is the producer, ``vX.Y`` specifies the major X and minor Y
version number of the extensions used in the DWARF of the compilation unit, and
*options* is an optional string providing additional information about the
extensions. The version number must conform to semantic versioning [:ref:`SEMVER
<amdgpu-dwarf-SEMVER>`]. The *options* string must not contain the "\ ``]``\ "
character.
For example:
::
[abc:v0.0][def:v1.2:feature-a=on,feature-b=3]
.. note::
This is different to the definition in DWARF Version 5 but is consistent with
the other augmentation strings and allows multiple vendor extensions to be
supported.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-line-number-information:
Line Number Information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Line Number Program Header
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Standard Content Descriptions
#############################
.. note::
This augments DWARF Version 5 section 6.2.4.1.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-line-number-information-dw-lnct-llvm-source:
1. ``DW_LNCT_LLVM_source``
The component is a null-terminated UTF-8 source text string with "\ ``\n``\
" line endings. This content code is paired with the same forms as
``DW_LNCT_path``. It can be used for file name entries.
The value is an empty null-terminated string if no source is available. If
the source is available but is an empty file then the value is a
null-terminated single "\ ``\n``\ ".
*When the source field is present, consumers can use the embedded source
instead of attempting to discover the source on disk using the file path
provided by the* ``DW_LNCT_path`` *field. When the source field is absent,
consumers can access the file to get the source text.*
*This is particularly useful for programming languages that support runtime
compilation and runtime generation of source text. In these cases, the
source text does not reside in any permanent file. For example, the OpenCL
language [:ref:`OpenCL <amdgpu-dwarf-OpenCL>`] supports online compilation.*
2. ``DW_LNCT_LLVM_is_MD5``
``DW_LNCT_LLVM_is_MD5`` indicates if the ``DW_LNCT_MD5`` content kind, if
present, is valid: when 0 it is not valid and when 1 it is valid. If
``DW_LNCT_LLVM_is_MD5`` content kind is not present, and ``DW_LNCT_MD5``
content kind is present, then the MD5 checksum is valid.
``DW_LNCT_LLVM_is_MD5`` is always paired with the ``DW_FORM_udata`` form.
*This allows a compilation unit to have a mixture of files with and without
MD5 checksums. This can happen when multiple relocatable files are linked
together.*
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-call-frame-information:
Call Frame Information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.. note::
This section provides changes to existing call frame information and defines
instructions added by these extensions. Additional support is added for
address spaces. Register unwind DWARF expressions are generalized to allow any
location description, including those with composite and implicit location
descriptions.
These changes would be incorporated into the DWARF Version 5 section 6.1.
.. _amdgpu-dwarf-structure_of-call-frame-information:
Structure of Call Frame Information
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
The register rules are:
*undefined*
A register that has this rule has no recoverable value in the previous frame.
The previous value of this register is the undefined location description (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-undefined-location-description-operations`).
*By convention, the register is not preserved by a callee.*
*same value*
This register has not been modified from the previous caller frame.
If the current frame is the top frame, then the previous value of this
register is the location description L that specifies one register location
description SL. SL specifies the register location storage that corresponds to
the register with a bit offset of 0 for the current thread.
If the current frame is not the top frame, then the previous value of this
register is the location description obtained using the call frame information
for the callee frame and callee program location invoked by the current caller
frame for the same register.
*By convention, the register is preserved by the callee, but the callee has
not modified it.*
*offset(N)*
N is a signed byte offset. The previous value of this register is saved at the
location description computed as if the DWARF operation expression
``DW_OP_LLVM_offset N`` is evaluated with the current context, except the
result kind is a location description, the compilation unit is unspecified,
the object is unspecified, and an initial stack comprising the location
description of the current CFA (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
*val_offset(N)*
N is a signed byte offset. The previous value of this register is the memory
byte address of the location description computed as if the DWARF operation
expression ``DW_OP_LLVM_offset N`` is evaluated with the current context,
except the result kind is a location description, the compilation unit is
unspecified, the object is unspecified, and an initial stack comprising the
location description of the current CFA (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
The DWARF is ill-formed if the CFA location description is not a memory byte
address location description, or if the register size does not match the size
of an address in the address space of the current CFA location description.
*Since the CFA location description is required to be a memory byte address
location description, the value of val_offset(N) will also be a memory byte
address location description since it is offsetting the CFA location
description by N bytes. Furthermore, the value of val_offset(N) will be a
memory byte address in the same address space as the CFA location
description.*
.. note::
Should DWARF allow the address size to be a different size to the size of
the register? Requiring them to be the same bit size avoids any issue of
conversion as the bit contents of the register is simply interpreted as a
value of the address.
GDB has a per register hook that allows a target specific conversion on a
register by register basis. It defaults to truncation of bigger registers,
and to actually reading bytes from the next register (or reads out of bounds
for the last register) for smaller registers. There are no GDB tests that
read a register out of bounds (except an illegal hand written assembly
test).
*register(R)*
This register has been stored in another register numbered R.
The previous value of this register is the location description obtained using
the call frame information for the current frame and current program location
for register R.
The DWARF is ill-formed if the size of this register does not match the size
of register R or if there is a cyclic dependency in the call frame
information.
.. note::
Should this also allow R to be larger than this register? If so is the value
stored in the low order bits and it is undefined what is stored in the
extra upper bits?
*expression(E)*
The previous value of this register is located at the location description
produced by evaluating the DWARF operation expression E (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
E is evaluated with the current context, except the result kind is a location
description, the compilation unit is unspecified, the object is unspecified,
and an initial stack comprising the location description of the current CFA
(see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
*val_expression(E)*
The previous value of this register is the value produced by evaluating the
DWARF operation expression E (see :ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
E is evaluated with the current context, except the result kind is a value,
the compilation unit is unspecified, the object is unspecified, and an initial
stack comprising the location description of the current CFA (see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-operation-expressions`).
The DWARF is ill-formed if the resulting value type size does not match the
register size.
.. note::
This has limited usefulness as the DWARF expression E can only produce
values up to the size of the generic type. This is due to not allowing any
operations that specify a type in a CFI operation expression. This makes it
unusable for registers that are larger than the generic type. However,
*expression(E)* can be used to create an implicit location description of
any size.
*architectural*
The rule is defined externally to this specification by the augmenter.
A Common Information Entry (CIE) holds information that is shared among many
Frame Description Entries (FDE). There is at least one CIE in every non-empty
``.debug_frame`` section. A CIE contains the following fields, in order:
1. ``length`` (initial length)
A constant that gives the number of bytes of the CIE structure, not
including the length field itself. The size of the length field plus the
value of length must be an integral multiple of the address size specified
in the ``address_size`` field.
2. ``CIE_id`` (4 or 8 bytes, see
:ref:`amdgpu-dwarf-32-bit-and-64-bit-dwarf-formats`)
A constant that is used to distinguish CIEs from FDEs.
In the 32-bit DWARF format, the value of the CIE id in the CIE header is
0xffffffff; in the 64-bit DWARF format, the value is 0xffffffffffffffff.
3. ``version`` (ubyte)
A version number. This number is specific to the call frame information and
is independent of the DWARF version number.
The value of the CIE version number is 4.
.. note::
Would this be increased to 5 to reflect the changes in these extensions?
4. ``augmentation`` (sequence of UTF-8 characters)
A null-terminated UTF-8 string that identifies the augmentation to this CIE