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//===-- ConvertType.cpp ---------------------------------------------------===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
#include "flang/Lower/ConvertType.h"
#include "flang/Lower/AbstractConverter.h"
#include "flang/Lower/CallInterface.h"
#include "flang/Lower/ConvertVariable.h"
#include "flang/Lower/Mangler.h"
#include "flang/Lower/PFTBuilder.h"
#include "flang/Lower/Support/Utils.h"
#include "flang/Optimizer/Builder/Todo.h"
#include "flang/Optimizer/Dialect/FIRType.h"
#include "flang/Semantics/tools.h"
#include "flang/Semantics/type.h"
#include "mlir/IR/Builders.h"
#include "mlir/IR/BuiltinTypes.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"
#define DEBUG_TYPE "flang-lower-type"
using Fortran::common::VectorElementCategory;
// Intrinsic type translation helpers
static mlir::Type genRealType(mlir::MLIRContext *context, int kind) {
if (Fortran::evaluate::IsValidKindOfIntrinsicType(
Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Real, kind)) {
switch (kind) {
case 2:
return mlir::FloatType::getF16(context);
case 3:
return mlir::FloatType::getBF16(context);
case 4:
return mlir::FloatType::getF32(context);
case 8:
return mlir::FloatType::getF64(context);
case 10:
return mlir::FloatType::getF80(context);
case 16:
return mlir::FloatType::getF128(context);
llvm_unreachable("REAL type translation not implemented");
template <int KIND>
int getIntegerBits() {
return Fortran::evaluate::Type<Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Integer,
static mlir::Type genIntegerType(mlir::MLIRContext *context, int kind,
bool isUnsigned = false) {
if (Fortran::evaluate::IsValidKindOfIntrinsicType(
Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Integer, kind)) {
mlir::IntegerType::SignednessSemantics signedness =
(isUnsigned ? mlir::IntegerType::SignednessSemantics::Unsigned
: mlir::IntegerType::SignednessSemantics::Signless);
switch (kind) {
case 1:
return mlir::IntegerType::get(context, getIntegerBits<1>(), signedness);
case 2:
return mlir::IntegerType::get(context, getIntegerBits<2>(), signedness);
case 4:
return mlir::IntegerType::get(context, getIntegerBits<4>(), signedness);
case 8:
return mlir::IntegerType::get(context, getIntegerBits<8>(), signedness);
case 16:
return mlir::IntegerType::get(context, getIntegerBits<16>(), signedness);
llvm_unreachable("INTEGER kind not translated");
static mlir::Type genLogicalType(mlir::MLIRContext *context, int KIND) {
if (Fortran::evaluate::IsValidKindOfIntrinsicType(
Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Logical, KIND))
return fir::LogicalType::get(context, KIND);
return {};
static mlir::Type genCharacterType(
mlir::MLIRContext *context, int KIND,
Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy len = fir::CharacterType::unknownLen()) {
if (Fortran::evaluate::IsValidKindOfIntrinsicType(
Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Character, KIND))
return fir::CharacterType::get(context, KIND, len);
return {};
static mlir::Type genComplexType(mlir::MLIRContext *context, int KIND) {
if (Fortran::evaluate::IsValidKindOfIntrinsicType(
Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Complex, KIND))
return fir::ComplexType::get(context, KIND);
return {};
static mlir::Type
genFIRType(mlir::MLIRContext *context, Fortran::common::TypeCategory tc,
int kind,
llvm::ArrayRef<Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy> lenParameters) {
switch (tc) {
case Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Real:
return genRealType(context, kind);
case Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Integer:
return genIntegerType(context, kind);
case Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Complex:
return genComplexType(context, kind);
case Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Logical:
return genLogicalType(context, kind);
case Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Character:
if (!lenParameters.empty())
return genCharacterType(context, kind, lenParameters[0]);
return genCharacterType(context, kind);
llvm_unreachable("unhandled type category");
// Symbol and expression type translation
/// TypeBuilderImpl translates expression and symbol type taking into account
/// their shape and length parameters. For symbols, attributes such as
/// ALLOCATABLE or POINTER are reflected in the fir type.
/// It uses evaluate::DynamicType and evaluate::Shape when possible to
/// avoid re-implementing type/shape analysis here.
/// Do not use the FirOpBuilder from the AbstractConverter to get fir/mlir types
/// since it is not guaranteed to exist yet when we lower types.
namespace {
struct TypeBuilderImpl {
TypeBuilderImpl(Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter)
: derivedTypeInConstruction{converter.getTypeConstructionStack()},
converter{converter}, context{&converter.getMLIRContext()} {}
template <typename A>
mlir::Type genExprType(const A &expr) {
std::optional<Fortran::evaluate::DynamicType> dynamicType = expr.GetType();
if (!dynamicType)
return genTypelessExprType(expr);
Fortran::common::TypeCategory category = dynamicType->category();
mlir::Type baseType;
bool isPolymorphic = (dynamicType->IsPolymorphic() ||
dynamicType->IsUnlimitedPolymorphic()) &&
if (dynamicType->IsUnlimitedPolymorphic()) {
baseType = mlir::NoneType::get(context);
} else if (category == Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Derived) {
baseType = genDerivedType(dynamicType->GetDerivedTypeSpec());
} else {
llvm::SmallVector<Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy> params;
translateLenParameters(params, category, expr);
baseType = genFIRType(context, category, dynamicType->kind(), params);
std::optional<Fortran::evaluate::Shape> shapeExpr =
Fortran::evaluate::GetShape(converter.getFoldingContext(), expr);
fir::SequenceType::Shape shape;
if (shapeExpr) {
translateShape(shape, std::move(*shapeExpr));
} else {
// Shape static analysis cannot return something useful for the shape.
// Use unknown extents.
int rank = expr.Rank();
if (rank < 0)
TODO(converter.getCurrentLocation(), "assumed rank expression types");
for (int dim = 0; dim < rank; ++dim)
if (!shape.empty()) {
if (isPolymorphic)
return fir::ClassType::get(fir::SequenceType::get(shape, baseType));
return fir::SequenceType::get(shape, baseType);
if (isPolymorphic)
return fir::ClassType::get(baseType);
return baseType;
template <typename A>
void translateShape(A &shape, Fortran::evaluate::Shape &&shapeExpr) {
for (Fortran::evaluate::MaybeExtentExpr extentExpr : shapeExpr) {
fir::SequenceType::Extent extent = fir::SequenceType::getUnknownExtent();
if (std::optional<std::int64_t> constantExtent =
extent = *constantExtent;
template <typename A>
std::optional<std::int64_t> toInt64(A &&expr) {
return Fortran::evaluate::ToInt64(Fortran::evaluate::Fold(
converter.getFoldingContext(), std::move(expr)));
template <typename A>
mlir::Type genTypelessExprType(const A &expr) {
fir::emitFatalError(converter.getCurrentLocation(), "not a typeless expr");
mlir::Type genTypelessExprType(const Fortran::lower::SomeExpr &expr) {
return std::visit(
[&](const Fortran::evaluate::BOZLiteralConstant &) -> mlir::Type {
return mlir::NoneType::get(context);
[&](const Fortran::evaluate::NullPointer &) -> mlir::Type {
return fir::ReferenceType::get(mlir::NoneType::get(context));
[&](const Fortran::evaluate::ProcedureDesignator &proc)
-> mlir::Type {
return Fortran::lower::translateSignature(proc, converter);
[&](const Fortran::evaluate::ProcedureRef &) -> mlir::Type {
return mlir::NoneType::get(context);
[](const auto &x) -> mlir::Type {
using T = std::decay_t<decltype(x)>;
T, Fortran::evaluate::TypelessExpression>,
"missing typeless expr handling");
llvm::report_fatal_error("not a typeless expression");
mlir::Type genSymbolType(const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &symbol,
bool isAlloc = false, bool isPtr = false) {
mlir::Location loc = converter.genLocation(;
mlir::Type ty;
// If the symbol is not the same as the ultimate one (i.e, it is host or use
// associated), all the symbol properties are the ones of the ultimate
// symbol but the volatile and asynchronous attributes that may differ. To
// avoid issues with helper functions that would not follow association
// links, the fir type is built based on the ultimate symbol. This relies
// on the fact volatile and asynchronous are not reflected in fir types.
const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &ultimate = symbol.GetUltimate();
if (Fortran::semantics::IsProcedurePointer(ultimate)) {
Fortran::evaluate::ProcedureDesignator proc(ultimate);
auto procTy{Fortran::lower::translateSignature(proc, converter)};
return fir::BoxProcType::get(context, procTy);
if (const Fortran::semantics::DeclTypeSpec *type = ultimate.GetType()) {
if (const Fortran::semantics::IntrinsicTypeSpec *tySpec =
type->AsIntrinsic()) {
int kind = toInt64(Fortran::common::Clone(tySpec->kind())).value();
llvm::SmallVector<Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy> params;
translateLenParameters(params, tySpec->category(), ultimate);
ty = genFIRType(context, tySpec->category(), kind, params);
} else if (type->IsPolymorphic() &&
!converter.getLoweringOptions().getPolymorphicTypeImpl()) {
// TODO is kept under experimental flag until feature is complete.
TODO(loc, "support for polymorphic types");
} else if (type->IsUnlimitedPolymorphic()) {
ty = mlir::NoneType::get(context);
} else if (const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec *tySpec =
type->AsDerived()) {
ty = genDerivedType(*tySpec);
} else {
fir::emitFatalError(loc, "symbol's type must have a type spec");
} else {
fir::emitFatalError(loc, "symbol must have a type");
bool isPolymorphic = (Fortran::semantics::IsPolymorphic(symbol) ||
Fortran::semantics::IsUnlimitedPolymorphic(symbol)) &&
if (ultimate.IsObjectArray()) {
auto shapeExpr =
Fortran::evaluate::GetShape(converter.getFoldingContext(), ultimate);
if (!shapeExpr)
TODO(loc, "assumed rank symbol type");
fir::SequenceType::Shape shape;
translateShape(shape, std::move(*shapeExpr));
ty = fir::SequenceType::get(shape, ty);
if (Fortran::semantics::IsPointer(symbol))
return fir::wrapInClassOrBoxType(fir::PointerType::get(ty),
if (Fortran::semantics::IsAllocatable(symbol))
return fir::wrapInClassOrBoxType(fir::HeapType::get(ty), isPolymorphic);
// isPtr and isAlloc are variable that were promoted to be on the
// heap or to be pointers, but they do not have Fortran allocatable
// or pointer semantics, so do not use box for them.
if (isPtr)
return fir::PointerType::get(ty);
if (isAlloc)
return fir::HeapType::get(ty);
if (isPolymorphic)
return fir::ClassType::get(ty);
return ty;
/// Does \p component has non deferred lower bounds that are not compile time
/// constant 1.
static bool componentHasNonDefaultLowerBounds(
const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &component) {
if (const auto *objDetails =
for (const Fortran::semantics::ShapeSpec &bounds : objDetails->shape())
if (auto lb = bounds.lbound().GetExplicit())
if (auto constant = Fortran::evaluate::ToInt64(*lb))
if (!constant || *constant != 1)
return true;
return false;
mlir::Type genVectorType(const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec &tySpec) {
assert(tySpec.scope() && "Missing scope for Vector type");
auto vectorSize{tySpec.scope()->size()};
switch (tySpec.category()) {
case (Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec::Category::IntrinsicVector): {
int64_t vecElemKind;
int64_t vecElemCategory;
for (const auto &pair : tySpec.parameters()) {
if (pair.first == "element_category") {
vecElemCategory =
} else if (pair.first == "element_kind") {
vecElemKind =
assert((vecElemCategory >= 0 &&
static_cast<size_t>(vecElemCategory) <
Fortran::common::VectorElementCategory_enumSize) &&
"Vector element type is not specified");
assert(vecElemKind && "Vector element kind is not specified");
int64_t numOfElements = vectorSize / vecElemKind;
switch (static_cast<VectorElementCategory>(vecElemCategory)) {
case VectorElementCategory::Integer:
return fir::VectorType::get(numOfElements,
genIntegerType(context, vecElemKind));
case VectorElementCategory::Unsigned:
return fir::VectorType::get(numOfElements,
genIntegerType(context, vecElemKind, true));
case VectorElementCategory::Real:
return fir::VectorType::get(numOfElements,
genRealType(context, vecElemKind));
case (Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec::Category::PairVector):
case (Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec::Category::QuadVector):
return fir::VectorType::get(vectorSize * 8,
mlir::IntegerType::get(context, 1));
case (Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec::Category::DerivedType):
Fortran::common::die("Vector element type not implemented");
mlir::Type genDerivedType(const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec &tySpec) {
std::vector<std::pair<std::string, mlir::Type>> ps;
std::vector<std::pair<std::string, mlir::Type>> cs;
if (tySpec.IsVectorType()) {
return genVectorType(tySpec);
const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &typeSymbol = tySpec.typeSymbol();
const Fortran::semantics::Scope &derivedScope = DEREF(tySpec.GetScope());
if (mlir::Type ty = getTypeIfDerivedAlreadyInConstruction(derivedScope))
return ty;
auto rec = fir::RecordType::get(context, converter.mangleName(tySpec));
// Maintain the stack of types for recursive references and to speed-up
// the derived type constructions that can be expensive for derived type
// with dozens of components/parents (modern Fortran).
derivedTypeInConstruction.try_emplace(&derivedScope, rec);
// Gather the record type fields.
// (1) The data components.
if (converter.getLoweringOptions().getLowerToHighLevelFIR()) {
// In HLFIR the parent component is the first fir.type component.
for (const auto &componentName :
.componentNames()) {
auto scopeIter = derivedScope.find(componentName);
assert(scopeIter != derivedScope.cend() &&
"failed to find derived type component symbol");
const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &component = scopeIter->second.get();
mlir::Type ty = genSymbolType(component);
cs.emplace_back(converter.getRecordTypeFieldName(component), ty);
} else {
for (const auto &component :
Fortran::semantics::OrderedComponentIterator(tySpec)) {
// In the lowering to FIR the parent component does not appear in the
// fir.type and its components are inlined at the beginning of the
// fir.type<>.
// FIXME: this strategy leads to bugs because padding should be inserted
// after the component of the parents so that the next components do not
// end-up in the parent storage if the sum of the parent's component
// storage size is not a multiple of the parent type storage alignment.
// Lowering is assuming non deferred component lower bounds are
// always 1. Catch any situations where this is not true for now.
if (componentHasNonDefaultLowerBounds(component))
"derived type components with non default lower bounds");
if (IsProcedure(component))
TODO(converter.genLocation(, "procedure components");
mlir::Type ty = genSymbolType(component);
// Do not add the parent component (component of the parents are
// added and should be sufficient, the parent component would
// duplicate the fields). Note that genSymbolType must be called above
// on it so that the dispatch table for the parent type still gets
// emitted as needed.
if (component.test(Fortran::semantics::Symbol::Flag::ParentComp))
cs.emplace_back(converter.getRecordTypeFieldName(component), ty);
mlir::Location loc = converter.genLocation(;
// (2) The LEN type parameters.
for (const auto &param :
if (param->get<Fortran::semantics::TypeParamDetails>().attr() ==
Fortran::common::TypeParamAttr::Len) {
TODO(loc, "parameterized derived types");
// TODO: emplace in ps. Beware that param is the symbol in the type
// declaration, not instantiation: its kind may not be a constant.
// The instantiated symbol in tySpec.scope should be used instead.
ps.emplace_back(param->name().ToString(), genSymbolType(*param));
rec.finalize(ps, cs);
if (!ps.empty()) {
// TODO: this type is a PDT (parametric derived type) with length
// parameter. Create the functions to use for allocation, dereferencing,
// and address arithmetic here.
LLVM_DEBUG(llvm::dbgs() << "derived type: " << rec << '\n');
// Generate the type descriptor object if any
if (const Fortran::semantics::Symbol *typeInfoSym =
converter.registerTypeInfo(loc, *typeInfoSym, tySpec, rec);
return rec;
// To get the character length from a symbol, make an fold a designator for
// the symbol to cover the case where the symbol is an assumed length named
// constant and its length comes from its init expression length.
template <int Kind>
getCharacterLengthHelper(const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &symbol) {
using TC =
Fortran::evaluate::Type<Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Character, Kind>;
auto designator = Fortran::evaluate::Fold(
if (auto len = toInt64(std::move(designator.LEN())))
return *len;
return fir::SequenceType::getUnknownExtent();
template <typename T>
void translateLenParameters(
llvm::SmallVectorImpl<Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy> &params,
Fortran::common::TypeCategory category, const T &exprOrSym) {
if (category == Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Character)
else if (category == Fortran::common::TypeCategory::Derived)
TODO(converter.getCurrentLocation(), "derived type length parameters");
getCharacterLength(const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &symbol) {
const Fortran::semantics::DeclTypeSpec *type = symbol.GetType();
if (!type ||
type->category() != Fortran::semantics::DeclTypeSpec::Character ||
llvm::report_fatal_error("not a character symbol");
int kind =
switch (kind) {
case 1:
return getCharacterLengthHelper<1>(symbol);
case 2:
return getCharacterLengthHelper<2>(symbol);
case 4:
return getCharacterLengthHelper<4>(symbol);
llvm_unreachable("unknown character kind");
template <typename A>
Fortran::lower::LenParameterTy getCharacterLength(const A &expr) {
return fir::SequenceType::getUnknownExtent();
template <typename T>
getCharacterLength(const Fortran::evaluate::FunctionRef<T> &funcRef) {
if (auto constantLen = toInt64(funcRef.LEN()))
return *constantLen;
return fir::SequenceType::getUnknownExtent();
getCharacterLength(const Fortran::lower::SomeExpr &expr) {
// Do not use dynamic type length here. We would miss constant
// lengths opportunities because dynamic type only has the length
// if it comes from a declaration.
if (const auto *charExpr = std::get_if<
&expr.u)) {
if (auto constantLen = toInt64(charExpr->LEN()))
return *constantLen;
} else if (auto dynamicType = expr.GetType()) {
// When generating derived type type descriptor as structure constructor,
// semantics wraps designators to data component initialization into
// CLASS(*), regardless of their actual type.
// GetType() will recover the actual symbol type as the dynamic type, so
// getCharacterLength may be reached even if expr is packaged as an
// Expr<SomeDerived> instead of an Expr<SomeChar>.
// Just use the dynamic type here again to retrieve the length.
if (auto constantLen = toInt64(dynamicType->GetCharLength()))
return *constantLen;
return fir::SequenceType::getUnknownExtent();
mlir::Type genVariableType(const Fortran::lower::pft::Variable &var) {
return genSymbolType(var.getSymbol(), var.isHeapAlloc(), var.isPointer());
/// Derived type can be recursive. That is, pointer components of a derived
/// type `t` have type `t`. This helper returns `t` if it is already being
/// lowered to avoid infinite loops.
mlir::Type getTypeIfDerivedAlreadyInConstruction(
const Fortran::semantics::Scope &derivedScope) const {
return derivedTypeInConstruction.lookup(&derivedScope);
/// Stack derived type being processed to avoid infinite loops in case of
/// recursive derived types. The depth of derived types is expected to be
/// shallow (<10), so a SmallVector is sufficient.
Fortran::lower::TypeConstructionStack &derivedTypeInConstruction;
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter;
mlir::MLIRContext *context;
} // namespace
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::getFIRType(mlir::MLIRContext *context,
Fortran::common::TypeCategory tc,
int kind,
llvm::ArrayRef<LenParameterTy> params) {
return genFIRType(context, tc, kind, params);
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::translateDerivedTypeToFIRType(
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter,
const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec &tySpec) {
return TypeBuilderImpl{converter}.genDerivedType(tySpec);
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::translateSomeExprToFIRType(
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter, const SomeExpr &expr) {
return TypeBuilderImpl{converter}.genExprType(expr);
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::translateSymbolToFIRType(
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter, const SymbolRef symbol) {
return TypeBuilderImpl{converter}.genSymbolType(symbol);
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::translateVariableToFIRType(
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter,
const Fortran::lower::pft::Variable &var) {
return TypeBuilderImpl{converter}.genVariableType(var);
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::convertReal(mlir::MLIRContext *context, int kind) {
return genRealType(context, kind);
bool Fortran::lower::isDerivedTypeWithLenParameters(
const Fortran::semantics::Symbol &sym) {
if (const Fortran::semantics::DeclTypeSpec *declTy = sym.GetType())
if (const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec *derived =
return Fortran::semantics::CountLenParameters(*derived) > 0;
return false;
template <typename T>
mlir::Type Fortran::lower::TypeBuilder<T>::genType(
Fortran::lower::AbstractConverter &converter,
const Fortran::evaluate::FunctionRef<T> &funcRef) {
return TypeBuilderImpl{converter}.genExprType(funcRef);
const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec &
Fortran::lower::ComponentReverseIterator::advanceToParentType() {
const Fortran::semantics::Scope *scope = currentParentType->GetScope();
auto parentComp =
assert(parentComp != scope->cend() && "failed to get parent component");
return *currentParentType;
void Fortran::lower::ComponentReverseIterator::setCurrentType(
const Fortran::semantics::DerivedTypeSpec &derived) {
currentParentType = &derived;
currentTypeDetails = &currentParentType->typeSymbol()
componentIt = currentTypeDetails->componentNames().crbegin();
componentItEnd = currentTypeDetails->componentNames().crend();
using namespace Fortran::evaluate;
using namespace Fortran::common;
FOR_EACH_SPECIFIC_TYPE(template class Fortran::lower::TypeBuilder, )