Discussion: Darwin Sanitizers Stable ABI

# Darwin Sanitizers Stable ABI

We wish to make it possible to include the AddressSanitizer (ASan) runtime implementation in OSes and for this we need a stable ASan ABI. Based on previous discussions about this topic, our understanding is that freezing the present ABI would impose an excessive burden on other sanitizer developers and for unrelated platforms. Therefore, we propose adding a secondary stable ABI for our use and anyone else in the community seeking the same. We believe that we can define a stable ABI with minimal burden on the community, expecting only to keep existing tests running and implementing stubs when new features are added. We are okay with trading performance for stability with no impact for existing users of ASan while minimizing the maintenance burden for ASan maintainers. We wish to commit this functionality to the LLVM project to maintain it there. This new and stable ABI will abstract away the implementation details allowing new and novel approaches to ASan for developers, researchers and others.

## Details

Rather than adding a lot of conditional code to the LLVM instrumentation phase, which would incur excessive complexity and maintenance cost of adding conditional code into all places that emit a runtime call, we propose a “shim” layer which will map the unstable ABI to the stable ABI:

* A static library (.a library) shim that maps the existing ASan ABI to a generalized, smaller and stable ABI. The library would implement the __asan functions and call into the new ABI. For example:
    * `void __asan_load1(uptr p) { __asan_abi_loadn(p, 1, true); }`
    * `void __asan_load2(uptr p) { __asan_abi_loadn(p, 2, true); }`
    * `void __asan_noabort_load16(uptr p) { __asan_abi_loadn(p, 16, false); }`
    * `void __asan_poison_cxx_array_cookie(uptr p) { __asan_abi_pac(p); }`
* This “shim” library would only be used by people who opt in: A compilation flag in the Clang driver will be used to gate the use of the stable ABI workflow.
* Utilize the existing ability for the ASan instrumentation to prefer runtime calls instead of inlined direct shadow memory accesses.
* Pursue (under the new driver flag) a better separation of abstraction and implementation with:
    * LLVM instrumentation: Calling out for all poisoning, checking and unpoisoning.
    * Runtime: Implementing the stable ABI and being responsible of implementation details of the shadow memory.

## Maintenance

Our aim is that the maintenance burden on the sanitizer developer community be negligible. Stable ABI tests will always pass for non-Darwin platforms. Changes to the existing ABI which would require a change to the shim have been infrequent as the ASan ABI is already relatively stable. Rarely, a change that impacts the contract between LLVM and the shim will occur. Among such foreseeable changes are: 1) changes to a function signature, 2) additions of new functions, or 3) deprecation of an existing function. Following are some examples of reasonable responses to those changes:

* Example: An existing ABI function is changed to return the input parameter on success or NULL on failure. In this scenario, a reasonable change to the shim would be to modify the function signature appropriately and to simply guess at a common-sense implementation.
    * `uptr __asan_load1(uptr p) { __asan_abi_loadn(p, 1, true); return p; }`
* Example: An additional function is added for performance reasons. It has a very similar function signature to other similarly named functions and logically is an extension of that same pattern. In this case it would make sense to apply the same logic as the existing entry points:
    * `void __asan_load128(uptr p) { __asan_abi_loadn(p, 128, true); }`
* Example: An entry point is added to the existing ABI for which there is no obvious stable ABI implementation: In this case, doing nothing in a no-op stub would be acceptable, assuming existing features of ASan can still work without an actual implementation of this new function.
    * `void __asan_prefetch(uptr p) { }`
* Example: An entrypoint in the existing ABI is deprecated and/or deleted:
    * (Delete the entrypoint from the shim.)

We’re looking for buy-in for this level of support.

(Note: Upon acceptance of the general concepts herein, we will add a controlling clang flag, cmake integration, contract for the stable ABI, and the appropriate test infrastructure.)

Reviewed By: eugenis, vitalybuka, MaskRay

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D143675

GitOrigin-RevId: 6f026ff029853431ee535e6a361edd059da3ab27
12 files changed