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//===- Tokens.h - collect tokens from preprocessing --------------*- C++-*-===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// Record tokens that a preprocessor emits and define operations to map between
// the tokens written in a file and tokens produced by the preprocessor.
// When running the compiler, there are two token streams we are interested in:
// - "spelled" tokens directly correspond to a substring written in some
// source file.
// - "expanded" tokens represent the result of preprocessing, parses consumes
// this token stream to produce the AST.
// Expanded tokens correspond directly to locations found in the AST, allowing
// to find subranges of the token stream covered by various AST nodes. Spelled
// tokens correspond directly to the source code written by the user.
// To allow composing these two use-cases, we also define operations that map
// between expanded and spelled tokens that produced them (macro calls,
// directives, etc).
#include "clang/Basic/LangOptions.h"
#include "clang/Basic/SourceLocation.h"
#include "clang/Basic/SourceManager.h"
#include "clang/Basic/TokenKinds.h"
#include "clang/Lex/Token.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/ArrayRef.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/DenseMap.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/Optional.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/StringRef.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Compiler.h"
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
#include <cstdint>
#include <tuple>
namespace clang {
class Preprocessor;
namespace syntax {
/// A half-open character range inside a particular file, the start offset is
/// included and the end offset is excluded from the range.
struct FileRange {
/// EXPECTS: File.isValid() && Begin <= End.
FileRange(FileID File, unsigned BeginOffset, unsigned EndOffset);
/// EXPECTS: BeginLoc.isValid() && BeginLoc.isFileID().
FileRange(const SourceManager &SM, SourceLocation BeginLoc, unsigned Length);
/// EXPECTS: BeginLoc.isValid() && BeginLoc.isFileID(), Begin <= End and files
/// are the same.
FileRange(const SourceManager &SM, SourceLocation BeginLoc,
SourceLocation EndLoc);
FileID file() const { return File; }
/// Start is a start offset (inclusive) in the corresponding file.
unsigned beginOffset() const { return Begin; }
/// End offset (exclusive) in the corresponding file.
unsigned endOffset() const { return End; }
unsigned length() const { return End - Begin; }
/// Check if \p Offset is inside the range.
bool contains(unsigned Offset) const {
return Begin <= Offset && Offset < End;
/// Check \p Offset is inside the range or equal to its endpoint.
bool touches(unsigned Offset) const {
return Begin <= Offset && Offset <= End;
/// Gets the substring that this FileRange refers to.
llvm::StringRef text(const SourceManager &SM) const;
/// Convert to the clang range. The returned range is always a char range,
/// never a token range.
CharSourceRange toCharRange(const SourceManager &SM) const;
friend bool operator==(const FileRange &L, const FileRange &R) {
return std::tie(L.File, L.Begin, L.End) == std::tie(R.File, R.Begin, R.End);
friend bool operator!=(const FileRange &L, const FileRange &R) {
return !(L == R);
FileID File;
unsigned Begin;
unsigned End;
/// For debugging purposes.
llvm::raw_ostream &operator<<(llvm::raw_ostream &OS, const FileRange &R);
/// A token coming directly from a file or from a macro invocation. Has just
/// enough information to locate the token in the source code.
/// Can represent both expanded and spelled tokens.
class Token {
Token(SourceLocation Location, unsigned Length, tok::TokenKind Kind);
/// EXPECTS: clang::Token is not an annotation token.
explicit Token(const clang::Token &T);
tok::TokenKind kind() const { return Kind; }
/// Location of the first character of a token.
SourceLocation location() const { return Location; }
/// Location right after the last character of a token.
SourceLocation endLocation() const {
return Location.getLocWithOffset(Length);
unsigned length() const { return Length; }
/// Get the substring covered by the token. Note that will include all
/// digraphs, newline continuations, etc. E.g. tokens for 'int' and
/// in\
/// t
/// both have the same kind tok::kw_int, but results of text() are different.
llvm::StringRef text(const SourceManager &SM) const;
/// Gets a range of this token.
/// EXPECTS: token comes from a file, not from a macro expansion.
FileRange range(const SourceManager &SM) const;
/// Given two tokens inside the same file, returns a file range that starts at
/// \p First and ends at \p Last.
/// EXPECTS: First and Last are file tokens from the same file, Last starts
/// after First.
static FileRange range(const SourceManager &SM, const syntax::Token &First,
const syntax::Token &Last);
std::string dumpForTests(const SourceManager &SM) const;
/// For debugging purposes.
std::string str() const;
SourceLocation Location;
unsigned Length;
tok::TokenKind Kind;
/// For debugging purposes. Equivalent to a call to Token::str().
llvm::raw_ostream &operator<<(llvm::raw_ostream &OS, const Token &T);
/// A list of tokens obtained by preprocessing a text buffer and operations to
/// map between the expanded and spelled tokens, i.e. TokenBuffer has
/// information about two token streams:
/// 1. Expanded tokens: tokens produced by the preprocessor after all macro
/// replacements,
/// 2. Spelled tokens: corresponding directly to the source code of a file
/// before any macro replacements occurred.
/// Here's an example to illustrate a difference between those two:
/// #define FOO 10
/// int a = FOO;
/// Spelled tokens are {'#','define','FOO','10','int','a','=','FOO',';'}.
/// Expanded tokens are {'int','a','=','10',';','eof'}.
/// Note that the expanded token stream has a tok::eof token at the end, the
/// spelled tokens never store a 'eof' token.
/// The full list expanded tokens can be obtained with expandedTokens(). Spelled
/// tokens for each of the files can be obtained via spelledTokens(FileID).
/// To map between the expanded and spelled tokens use findSpelledByExpanded().
/// To build a token buffer use the TokenCollector class. You can also compute
/// the spelled tokens of a file using the tokenize() helper.
/// FIXME: allow mappings into macro arguments.
class TokenBuffer {
TokenBuffer(const SourceManager &SourceMgr) : SourceMgr(&SourceMgr) {}
TokenBuffer(TokenBuffer &&) = default;
TokenBuffer(const TokenBuffer &) = delete;
TokenBuffer &operator=(TokenBuffer &&) = default;
TokenBuffer &operator=(const TokenBuffer &) = delete;
/// All tokens produced by the preprocessor after all macro replacements,
/// directives, etc. Source locations found in the clang AST will always
/// point to one of these tokens.
/// Tokens are in TU order (per SourceManager::isBeforeInTranslationUnit()).
/// FIXME: figure out how to handle token splitting, e.g. '>>' can be split
/// into two '>' tokens by the parser. However, TokenBuffer currently
/// keeps it as a single '>>' token.
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> expandedTokens() const {
return ExpandedTokens;
/// Builds a cache to make future calls to expandedToken(SourceRange) faster.
/// Creates an index only once. Further calls to it will be no-op.
void indexExpandedTokens();
/// Returns the subrange of expandedTokens() corresponding to the closed
/// token range R.
/// Consider calling indexExpandedTokens() before for faster lookups.
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> expandedTokens(SourceRange R) const;
/// Returns the subrange of spelled tokens corresponding to AST node spanning
/// \p Expanded. This is the text that should be replaced if a refactoring
/// were to rewrite the node. If \p Expanded is empty, the returned value is
/// llvm::None.
/// Will fail if the expanded tokens do not correspond to a sequence of
/// spelled tokens. E.g. for the following example:
/// #define FIRST f1 f2 f3
/// #define SECOND s1 s2 s3
/// #define ID2(X, Y) X Y
/// a FIRST b SECOND c // expanded tokens are: a f1 f2 f3 b s1 s2 s3 c
/// d ID2(e f g, h) i // expanded tokens are: d e f g h i
/// the results would be:
/// expanded => spelled
/// ------------------------
/// a => a
/// s1 s2 s3 => SECOND
/// a f1 f2 f3 => a FIRST
/// a f1 => can't map
/// s1 s2 => can't map
/// e f => e f
/// g h => can't map
/// EXPECTS: \p Expanded is a subrange of expandedTokens().
/// Complexity is logarithmic.
spelledForExpanded(llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Expanded) const;
/// Find the subranges of expanded tokens, corresponding to \p Spelled.
/// Some spelled tokens may not be present in the expanded token stream, so
/// this function can return an empty vector, e.g. for tokens of macro
/// directives or disabled preprocessor branches.
/// Some spelled tokens can be duplicated in the expanded token stream
/// multiple times and this function will return multiple results in those
/// cases. This happens when \p Spelled is inside a macro argument.
/// FIXME: return correct results on macro arguments. For now, we return an
/// empty list.
/// (!) will return empty vector on tokens from #define body:
/// E.g. for the following example:
/// #define FIRST(A) f1 A = A f2
/// #define SECOND s
/// a FIRST(arg) b SECOND c // expanded tokens are: a f1 arg = arg f2 b s
/// The results would be
/// spelled => expanded
/// ------------------------
/// #define FIRST => {}
/// a FIRST(arg) => {a f1 arg = arg f2}
/// arg => {arg, arg} // arg #1 is before `=` and arg #2 is
/// // after `=` in the expanded tokens.
llvm::SmallVector<llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token>, 1>
expandedForSpelled(llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Spelled) const;
/// An expansion produced by the preprocessor, includes macro expansions and
/// preprocessor directives. Preprocessor always maps a non-empty range of
/// spelled tokens to a (possibly empty) range of expanded tokens. Here is a
/// few examples of expansions:
/// #pragma once // Expands to an empty range.
/// #define FOO 1 2 3 // Expands an empty range.
/// FOO // Expands to "1 2 3".
/// FIXME(ibiryukov): implement this, currently #include expansions are empty.
/// #include <vector> // Expands to tokens produced by the include.
struct Expansion {
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Spelled;
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Expanded;
/// If \p Spelled starts a mapping (e.g. if it's a macro name or '#' starting
/// a preprocessor directive) return the subrange of expanded tokens that the
/// macro expands to.
expansionStartingAt(const syntax::Token *Spelled) const;
/// Returns all expansions (partially) expanded from the specified tokens.
/// This is the expansions whose Spelled range intersects \p Spelled.
expansionsOverlapping(llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Spelled) const;
/// Lexed tokens of a file before preprocessing. E.g. for the following input
/// #define DECL(name) int name = 10
/// DECL(a);
/// spelledTokens() returns
/// {"#", "define", "DECL", "(", "name", ")", "int", "name", "=", "10",
/// "DECL", "(", "a", ")", ";"}
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> spelledTokens(FileID FID) const;
/// Returns the spelled Token starting at Loc, if there are no such tokens
/// returns nullptr.
const syntax::Token *spelledTokenAt(SourceLocation Loc) const;
/// Get all tokens that expand a macro in \p FID. For the following input
/// #define FOO B
/// #define FOO2(X) int X
/// FOO2(XY)
/// int B;
/// FOO;
/// macroExpansions() returns {"FOO2", "FOO"} (from line 3 and 5
/// respecitvely).
std::vector<const syntax::Token *> macroExpansions(FileID FID) const;
const SourceManager &sourceManager() const { return *SourceMgr; }
std::string dumpForTests() const;
/// Describes a mapping between a continuous subrange of spelled tokens and
/// expanded tokens. Represents macro expansions, preprocessor directives,
/// conditionally disabled pp regions, etc.
/// #define FOO 1+2
/// #define BAR(a) a + 1
/// FOO // invocation #1, tokens = {'1','+','2'}, macroTokens = {'FOO'}.
/// BAR(1) // invocation #2, tokens = {'a', '+', '1'},
/// macroTokens = {'BAR', '(', '1', ')'}.
struct Mapping {
// Positions in the corresponding spelled token stream. The corresponding
// range is never empty.
unsigned BeginSpelled = 0;
unsigned EndSpelled = 0;
// Positions in the expanded token stream. The corresponding range can be
// empty.
unsigned BeginExpanded = 0;
unsigned EndExpanded = 0;
/// For debugging purposes.
std::string str() const;
/// Spelled tokens of the file with information about the subranges.
struct MarkedFile {
/// Lexed, but not preprocessed, tokens of the file. These map directly to
/// text in the corresponding files and include tokens of all preprocessor
/// directives.
/// FIXME: spelled tokens don't change across FileID that map to the same
/// FileEntry. We could consider deduplicating them to save memory.
std::vector<syntax::Token> SpelledTokens;
/// A sorted list to convert between the spelled and expanded token streams.
std::vector<Mapping> Mappings;
/// The first expanded token produced for this FileID.
unsigned BeginExpanded = 0;
unsigned EndExpanded = 0;
friend class TokenCollector;
/// Maps a single expanded token to its spelled counterpart or a mapping that
/// produced it.
std::pair<const syntax::Token *, const Mapping *>
spelledForExpandedToken(const syntax::Token *Expanded) const;
/// Returns a mapping starting before \p Spelled token, or nullptr if no
/// such mapping exists.
static const Mapping *
mappingStartingBeforeSpelled(const MarkedFile &F,
const syntax::Token *Spelled);
/// Convert a private Mapping to a public Expansion.
Expansion makeExpansion(const MarkedFile &, const Mapping &) const;
/// Returns the file that the Spelled tokens are taken from.
/// Asserts that they are non-empty, from a tracked file, and in-bounds.
const MarkedFile &fileForSpelled(llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Spelled) const;
/// Token stream produced after preprocessing, conceputally this captures the
/// same stream as 'clang -E' (excluding the preprocessor directives like
/// #file, etc.).
std::vector<syntax::Token> ExpandedTokens;
// Index of ExpandedTokens for faster lookups by SourceLocation.
llvm::DenseMap<SourceLocation, unsigned> ExpandedTokIndex;
llvm::DenseMap<FileID, MarkedFile> Files;
// The value is never null, pointer instead of reference to avoid disabling
// implicit assignment operator.
const SourceManager *SourceMgr;
/// The spelled tokens that overlap or touch a spelling location Loc.
/// This always returns 0-2 tokens.
spelledTokensTouching(SourceLocation Loc, const syntax::TokenBuffer &Tokens);
spelledTokensTouching(SourceLocation Loc, llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Tokens);
/// The identifier token that overlaps or touches a spelling location Loc.
/// If there is none, returns nullptr.
const syntax::Token *
spelledIdentifierTouching(SourceLocation Loc,
llvm::ArrayRef<syntax::Token> Tokens);
const syntax::Token *
spelledIdentifierTouching(SourceLocation Loc,
const syntax::TokenBuffer &Tokens);
/// Lex the text buffer, corresponding to \p FID, in raw mode and record the
/// resulting spelled tokens. Does minimal post-processing on raw identifiers,
/// setting the appropriate token kind (instead of the raw_identifier reported
/// by lexer in raw mode). This is a very low-level function, most users should
/// prefer to use TokenCollector. Lexing in raw mode produces wildly different
/// results from what one might expect when running a C++ frontend, e.g.
/// preprocessor does not run at all.
/// The result will *not* have a 'eof' token at the end.
std::vector<syntax::Token> tokenize(FileID FID, const SourceManager &SM,
const LangOptions &LO);
/// Similar to one above, instead of whole file tokenizes a part of it. Note
/// that, the first token might be incomplete if FR.startOffset is not at the
/// beginning of a token, and the last token returned will start before the
/// FR.endOffset but might end after it.
tokenize(const FileRange &FR, const SourceManager &SM, const LangOptions &LO);
/// Collects tokens for the main file while running the frontend action. An
/// instance of this object should be created on
/// FrontendAction::BeginSourceFile() and the results should be consumed after
/// FrontendAction::Execute() finishes.
class TokenCollector {
/// Adds the hooks to collect the tokens. Should be called before the
/// preprocessing starts, i.e. as a part of BeginSourceFile() or
/// CreateASTConsumer().
TokenCollector(Preprocessor &P);
/// Finalizes token collection. Should be called after preprocessing is
/// finished, i.e. after running Execute().
[[nodiscard]] TokenBuffer consume() &&;
/// Maps from a start to an end spelling location of transformations
/// performed by the preprocessor. These include:
/// 1. range from '#' to the last token in the line for PP directives,
/// 2. macro name and arguments for macro expansions.
/// Note that we record only top-level macro expansions, intermediate
/// expansions (e.g. inside macro arguments) are ignored.
/// Used to find correct boundaries of macro calls and directives when
/// building mappings from spelled to expanded tokens.
/// Logically, at each point of the preprocessor execution there is a stack of
/// macro expansions being processed and we could use it to recover the
/// location information we need. However, the public preprocessor API only
/// exposes the points when macro expansions start (when we push a macro onto
/// the stack) and not when they end (when we pop a macro from the stack).
/// To workaround this limitation, we rely on source location information
/// stored in this map.
using PPExpansions = llvm::DenseMap<SourceLocation, SourceLocation>;
class Builder;
class CollectPPExpansions;
std::vector<syntax::Token> Expanded;
// FIXME: we only store macro expansions, also add directives(#pragma, etc.)
PPExpansions Expansions;
Preprocessor &PP;
CollectPPExpansions *Collector;
} // namespace syntax
} // namespace clang