blob: b249ac6d32ccc266fe42758d16d8d3a72cd60535 [file] [log] [blame]
.. title:: clang-tidy - bugprone-move-forwarding-reference
Warns if ``std::move`` is called on a forwarding reference, for example:
.. code-block:: c++
template <typename T>
void foo(T&& t) {
`Forwarding references
<>`_ should
typically be passed to ``std::forward`` instead of ``std::move``, and this is
the fix that will be suggested.
(A forwarding reference is an rvalue reference of a type that is a deduced
function template argument.)
In this example, the suggested fix would be
.. code-block:: c++
Code like the example above is sometimes written with the expectation that
``T&&`` will always end up being an rvalue reference, no matter what type is
deduced for ``T``, and that it is therefore not possible to pass an lvalue to
``foo()``. However, this is not true. Consider this example:
.. code-block:: c++
std::string s = "Hello, world";
This code compiles and, after the call to ``foo()``, ``s`` is left in an
indeterminate state because it has been moved from. This may be surprising to
the caller of ``foo()`` because no ``std::move`` was used when calling
The reason for this behavior lies in the special rule for template argument
deduction on function templates like ``foo()`` -- i.e. on function templates
that take an rvalue reference argument of a type that is a deduced function
template argument. (See section []/3 in the C++11 standard.)
If ``foo()`` is called on an lvalue (as in the example above), then ``T`` is
deduced to be an lvalue reference. In the example, ``T`` is deduced to be
``std::string &``. The type of the argument ``t`` therefore becomes
``std::string& &&``; by the reference collapsing rules, this collapses to
This means that the ``foo(s)`` call passes ``s`` as an lvalue reference, and
``foo()`` ends up moving ``s`` and thereby placing it into an indeterminate