blob: 47970bfbbc400a644c82697bfd257be6a8c8d436 [file] [log] [blame]
.. title:: clang-tidy - bugprone-easily-swappable-parameters
Finds function definitions where parameters of convertible types follow each
other directly, making call sites prone to calling the function with
swapped (or badly ordered) arguments.
.. code-block:: c++
void drawPoint(int X, int Y) { /* ... */ }
FILE *open(const char *Dir, const char *Name, Flags Mode) { /* ... */ }
A potential call like ``drawPoint(-2, 5)`` or ``openPath("a.txt", "tmp", Read)``
is perfectly legal from the language's perspective, but might not be what the
developer of the function intended.
More elaborate and type-safe constructs, such as opaque typedefs or strong
types should be used instead, to prevent a mistaken order of arguments.
.. code-block:: c++
struct Coord2D { int X; int Y; };
void drawPoint(const Coord2D Pos) { /* ... */ }
FILE *open(const Path &Dir, const Filename &Name, Flags Mode) { /* ... */ }
Due to the potentially elaborate refactoring and API-breaking that is necessary
to strengthen the type safety of a project, no automatic fix-its are offered.
Extension/relaxation options
Relaxation (or extension) options can be used to broaden the scope of the
analysis and fine-tune the enabling of more mixes between types.
Some mixes may depend on coding style or preference specific to a project,
however, it should be noted that enabling *all* of these relaxations model the
way of mixing at call sites the most.
These options are expected to make the check report for more functions, and
report longer mixable ranges.
.. option:: QualifiersMix
Whether to consider parameters of some *cvr-qualified* ``T`` and a
differently *cvr-qualified* ``T`` (i.e. ``T`` and ``const T``, ``const T``
and ``volatile T``, etc.) mixable between one another.
If `false`, the check will consider differently qualified types unmixable.
`True` turns the warnings on.
Defaults to `false`.
The following example produces a diagnostic only if `QualifiersMix` is
.. code-block:: c++
void *memcpy(const void *Destination, void *Source, std::size_t N) { /* ... */ }
.. option:: ModelImplicitConversions
Whether to consider parameters of type ``T`` and ``U`` mixable if there
exists an implicit conversion from ``T`` to ``U`` and ``U`` to ``T``.
If `false`, the check will not consider implicitly convertible types for
`True` turns warnings for implicit conversions on.
Defaults to `true`.
The following examples produce a diagnostic only if
`ModelImplicitConversions` is enabled:
.. code-block:: c++
void fun(int Int, double Double) { /* ... */ }
void compare(const char *CharBuf, std::string String) { /* ... */ }
.. note::
Changing the qualifiers of an expression's type (e.g. from ``int`` to
``const int``) is defined as an *implicit conversion* in the C++
However, the check separates this decision-making on the mixability of
differently qualified types based on whether `QualifiersMix` was
For example, the following code snippet will only produce a diagnostic
if **both** `QualifiersMix` and `ModelImplicitConversions` are enabled:
.. code-block:: c++
void fun2(int Int, const double Double) { /* ... */ }
Filtering options
Filtering options can be used to lessen the size of the diagnostics emitted by
the checker, whether the aim is to ignore certain constructs or dampen the
.. option:: MinimumLength
The minimum length required from an adjacent parameter sequence to be
Defaults to `2`.
Might be any positive integer greater or equal to `2`.
If `0` or `1` is given, the default value `2` will be used instead.
For example, if `3` is specified, the examples above will not be matched.
.. option:: IgnoredParameterNames
The list of parameter **names** that should never be considered part of a
swappable adjacent parameter sequence.
The value is a `;`-separated list of names.
To ignore unnamed parameters, add `""` to the list verbatim (not the
empty string, but the two quotes, potentially escaped!).
**This option is case-sensitive!**
By default, the following parameter names, and their Uppercase-initial
variants are ignored:
`""` (unnamed parameters), `iterator`, `begin`, `end`, `first`, `last`,
`lhs`, `rhs`.
.. option:: IgnoredParameterTypeSuffixes
The list of parameter **type name suffixes** that should never be
considered part of a swappable adjacent parameter sequence.
Parameters which type, as written in the source code, end with an element
of this option will be ignored.
The value is a `;`-separated list of names.
**This option is case-sensitive!**
By default, the following, and their lowercase-initial variants are ignored:
`bool`, `It`, `Iterator`, `InputIt`, `ForwardIt`, `BidirIt`, `RandomIt`,
`random_iterator`, `ReverseIt`, `reverse_iterator`,
`reverse_const_iterator`, `RandomIt`, `random_iterator`, `ReverseIt`,
`reverse_iterator`, `reverse_const_iterator`, `Const_Iterator`,
`ConstIterator`, `const_reverse_iterator`, `ConstReverseIterator`.
In addition, `_Bool` (but not `_bool`) is also part of the default value.
.. option:: SuppressParametersUsedTogether
Suppresses diagnostics about parameters that are used together or in a
similar fashion inside the function's body.
Defaults to `true`.
Specifying `false` will turn off the heuristics.
Currently, the following heuristics are implemented which will suppress the
warning about the parameter pair involved:
* The parameters are used in the same expression, e.g. ``f(a, b)`` or
``a < b``.
* The parameters are further passed to the same function to the same
parameter of that function, of the same overload.
E.g. ``f(a, 1)`` and ``f(b, 2)`` to some ``f(T, int)``.
.. note::
The check does not perform path-sensitive analysis, and as such,
"same function" in this context means the same function declaration.
If the same member function of a type on two distinct instances are
called with the parameters, it will still be regarded as
"same function".
* The same member field is accessed, or member method is called of the
two parameters, e.g. ```` and ````.
* Separate ``return`` statements return either of the parameters on
different code paths.
.. option:: NamePrefixSuffixSilenceDissimilarityTreshold
The number of characters two parameter names might be different on *either*
the head or the tail end with the rest of the name the same so that the
warning about the two parameters are silenced.
Defaults to `1`.
Might be any positive integer.
If `0`, the filtering heuristic based on the parameters' names is turned
This option can be used to silence warnings about parameters where the
naming scheme indicates that the order of those parameters do not matter.
For example, the parameters ``LHS`` and ``RHS`` are 1-dissimilar suffixes
of each other: ``L`` and ``R`` is the different character, while ``HS``
is the common suffix.
Similarly, parameters ``text1, text2, text3`` are 1-dissimilar prefixes
of each other, with the numbers at the end being the dissimilar part.
If the value is at least `1`, such cases will not be reported.
**This check is designed to check function signatures!**
The check does not investigate functions that are generated by the compiler
in a context that is only determined from a call site.
These cases include variadic functions, functions in C code that do not have
an argument list, and C++ template instantiations.
Most of these cases, which are otherwise swappable from a caller's standpoint,
have no way of getting "fixed" at the definition point.
In the case of C++ templates, only primary template definitions and explicit
specializations are matched and analyzed.
None of the following cases produce a diagnostic:
.. code-block:: c++
int printf(const char *Format, ...) { /* ... */ }
int someOldCFunction() { /* ... */ }
template <typename T, typename U>
int add(T X, U Y) { return X + Y };
void theseAreNotWarnedAbout() {
printf("%d %d\n", 1, 2); // Two ints passed, they could be swapped.
someOldCFunction(1, 2, 3); // Similarly, multiple ints passed.
add(1, 2); // Instantiates 'add<int, int>', but that's not a user-defined function.
Due to the limitation above, parameters which type are further dependent upon
template instantiations to *prove* that they mix with another parameter's is
not diagnosed.
.. code-block:: c++
template <typename T>
struct Vector {
typedef T element_type;
// Diagnosed: Explicit instantiation was done by the user, we can prove it
// is the same type.
void instantiated(int A, Vector<int>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }
// Diagnosed: The two parameter types are exactly the same.
template <typename T>
void exact(typename Vector<T>::element_type A,
typename Vector<T>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }
// Skipped: The two parameters are both 'T' but we cannot prove this
// without actually instantiating.
template <typename T>
void falseNegative(T A, typename Vector<T>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }
In the context of *implicit conversions* (when `ModelImplicitConversions` is
enabled), the modelling performed by the check
warns if the parameters are swappable and the swapped order matches implicit
It does not model whether there exists an unrelated third type from which
*both* parameters can be given in a function call.
This means that in the following example, even while ``strs()`` clearly carries
the possibility to be called with swapped arguments (as long as the arguments
are string literals), will not be warned about.
.. code-block:: c++
struct String {
String(const char *Buf);
struct StringView {
StringView(const char *Buf);
operator const char *() const;
// Skipped: Directly swapping expressions of the two type cannot mix.
// (Note: StringView -> const char * -> String would be **two**
// user-defined conversions, which is disallowed by the language.)
void strs(String Str, StringView SV) { /* ... */ }
// Diagnosed: StringView implicitly converts to and from a buffer.
void cStr(StringView SV, const char *Buf() { /* ... */ }