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/* Interface to prologue value handling for GDB.
Copyright 2003-2005, 2007-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This file is part of GDB.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see <>. */
/* When we analyze a prologue, we're really doing 'abstract
interpretation' or 'pseudo-evaluation': running the function's code
in simulation, but using conservative approximations of the values
it would have when it actually runs. For example, if our function
starts with the instruction:
addi r1, 42 # add 42 to r1
we don't know exactly what value will be in r1 after executing this
instruction, but we do know it'll be 42 greater than its original
If we then see an instruction like:
addi r1, 22 # add 22 to r1
we still don't know what r1's value is, but again, we can say it is
now 64 greater than its original value.
If the next instruction were:
mov r2, r1 # set r2 to r1's value
then we can say that r2's value is now the original value of r1
plus 64.
It's common for prologues to save registers on the stack, so we'll
need to track the values of stack frame slots, as well as the
registers. So after an instruction like this:
mov (fp+4), r2
then we'd know that the stack slot four bytes above the frame
pointer holds the original value of r1 plus 64.
And so on.
Of course, this can only go so far before it gets unreasonable. If
we wanted to be able to say anything about the value of r1 after
the instruction:
xor r1, r3 # exclusive-or r1 and r3, place result in r1
then things would get pretty complex. But remember, we're just
doing a conservative approximation; if exclusive-or instructions
aren't relevant to prologues, we can just say r1's value is now
'unknown'. We can ignore things that are too complex, if that loss
of information is acceptable for our application.
So when I say "conservative approximation" here, what I mean is an
approximation that is either accurate, or marked "unknown", but
never inaccurate.
Once you've reached the current PC, or an instruction that you
don't know how to simulate, you stop. Now you can examine the
state of the registers and stack slots you've kept track of.
- To see how large your stack frame is, just check the value of the
stack pointer register; if it's the original value of the SP
minus a constant, then that constant is the stack frame's size.
If the SP's value has been marked as 'unknown', then that means
the prologue has done something too complex for us to track, and
we don't know the frame size.
- To see where we've saved the previous frame's registers, we just
search the values we've tracked --- stack slots, usually, but
registers, too, if you want --- for something equal to the
register's original value. If the ABI suggests a standard place
to save a given register, then we can check there first, but
really, anything that will get us back the original value will
probably work.
Sure, this takes some work. But prologue analyzers aren't
quick-and-simple pattern patching to recognize a few fixed prologue
forms any more; they're big, hairy functions. Along with inferior
function calls, prologue analysis accounts for a substantial
portion of the time needed to stabilize a GDB port. So I think
it's worthwhile to look for an approach that will be easier to
understand and maintain. In the approach used here:
- It's easier to see that the analyzer is correct: you just see
whether the analyzer properly (albiet conservatively) simulates
the effect of each instruction.
- It's easier to extend the analyzer: you can add support for new
instructions, and know that you haven't broken anything that
wasn't already broken before.
- It's orthogonal: to gather new information, you don't need to
complicate the code for each instruction. As long as your domain
of conservative values is already detailed enough to tell you
what you need, then all the existing instruction simulations are
already gathering the right data for you.
A 'struct prologue_value' is a conservative approximation of the
real value the register or stack slot will have. */
struct prologue_value {
/* What sort of value is this? This determines the interpretation
of subsequent fields. */
enum {
/* We don't know anything about the value. This is also used for
values we could have kept track of, when doing so would have
been too complex and we don't want to bother. The bottom of
our lattice. */
/* A known constant. K is its value. */
/* The value that register REG originally had *UPON ENTRY TO THE
FUNCTION*, plus K. If K is zero, this means, obviously, just
the value REG had upon entry to the function. REG is a GDB
register number. Before we start interpreting, we initialize
every register R to { pvk_register, R, 0 }. */
} kind;
/* The meanings of the following fields depend on 'kind'; see the
comments for the specific 'kind' values. */
int reg;
typedef struct prologue_value pv_t;
/* Return the unknown prologue value --- { pvk_unknown, ?, ? }. */
pv_t pv_unknown (void);
/* Return the prologue value representing the constant K. */
pv_t pv_constant (CORE_ADDR k);
/* Return the prologue value representing the original value of
register REG, plus the constant K. */
pv_t pv_register (int reg, CORE_ADDR k);
/* Return conservative approximations of the results of the following
operations. */
pv_t pv_add (pv_t a, pv_t b); /* a + b */
pv_t pv_add_constant (pv_t v, CORE_ADDR k); /* a + k */
pv_t pv_subtract (pv_t a, pv_t b); /* a - b */
pv_t pv_logical_and (pv_t a, pv_t b); /* a & b */
/* Return non-zero iff A and B are identical expressions.
This is not the same as asking if the two values are equal; the
result of such a comparison would have to be a pv_boolean, and
asking whether two 'unknown' values were equal would give you
pv_maybe. Same for comparing, say, { pvk_register, R1, 0 } and {
pvk_register, R2, 0}.
Instead, this function asks whether the two representations are the
same. */
int pv_is_identical (pv_t a, pv_t b);
/* Return non-zero if A is known to be a constant. */
int pv_is_constant (pv_t a);
/* Return non-zero if A is the original value of register number R
plus some constant, zero otherwise. */
int pv_is_register (pv_t a, int r);
/* Return non-zero if A is the original value of register R plus the
constant K. */
int pv_is_register_k (pv_t a, int r, CORE_ADDR k);
/* A conservative boolean type, including "maybe", when we can't
figure out whether something is true or not. */
enum pv_boolean {
/* Decide whether a reference to SIZE bytes at ADDR refers exactly to
an element of an array. The array starts at ARRAY_ADDR, and has
ARRAY_LEN values of ELT_SIZE bytes each. If ADDR definitely does
refer to an array element, set *I to the index of the referenced
element in the array, and return pv_definite_yes. If it definitely
doesn't, return pv_definite_no. If we can't tell, return pv_maybe.
If the reference does touch the array, but doesn't fall exactly on
an element boundary, or doesn't refer to the whole element, return
pv_maybe. */
enum pv_boolean pv_is_array_ref (pv_t addr, CORE_ADDR size,
pv_t array_addr, CORE_ADDR array_len,
CORE_ADDR elt_size,
int *i);
/* A 'struct pv_area' keeps track of values stored in a particular
region of memory. */
struct pv_area;
/* Create a new area, tracking stores relative to the original value
of BASE_REG. If BASE_REG is SP, then this effectively records the
contents of the stack frame: the original value of the SP is the
frame's CFA, or some constant offset from it.
Stores to constant addresses, unknown addresses, or to addresses
relative to registers other than BASE_REG will trash this area; see
To check whether a pointer refers to this area, only the low
ADDR_BIT bits will be compared. */
struct pv_area *make_pv_area (int base_reg, int addr_bit);
/* Free AREA. */
void free_pv_area (struct pv_area *area);
/* Register a cleanup to free AREA. */
struct cleanup *make_cleanup_free_pv_area (struct pv_area *area);
/* Store the SIZE-byte value VALUE at ADDR in AREA.
If ADDR is not relative to the same base register we used in
creating AREA, then we can't tell which values here the stored
value might overlap, and we'll have to mark everything as
unknown. */
void pv_area_store (struct pv_area *area,
pv_t addr,
pv_t value);
/* Return the SIZE-byte value at ADDR in AREA. This may return
pv_unknown (). */
pv_t pv_area_fetch (struct pv_area *area, pv_t addr, CORE_ADDR size);
/* Return true if storing to address ADDR in AREA would force us to
mark the contents of the entire area as unknown. This could happen
if, say, ADDR is unknown, since we could be storing anywhere. Or,
it could happen if ADDR is relative to a different register than
the other stores base register, since we don't know the relative
values of the two registers.
If you've reached such a store, it may be better to simply stop the
prologue analysis, and return the information you've gathered,
instead of losing all that information, most of which is probably
okay. */
int pv_area_store_would_trash (struct pv_area *area, pv_t addr);
/* Search AREA for the original value of REGISTER. If we can't find
it, return zero; if we can find it, return a non-zero value, and if
OFFSET_P is non-zero, set *OFFSET_P to the register's offset within
AREA. GDBARCH is the architecture of which REGISTER is a member.
In the worst case, this takes time proportional to the number of
items stored in AREA. If you plan to gather a lot of information
about registers saved in AREA, consider calling pv_area_scan
instead, and collecting all your information in one pass. */
int pv_area_find_reg (struct pv_area *area,
struct gdbarch *gdbarch,
int reg,
CORE_ADDR *offset_p);
/* For every part of AREA whose value we know, apply FUNC to CLOSURE,
the value's address, its size, and the value itself. */
void pv_area_scan (struct pv_area *area,
void (*func) (void *closure,
pv_t addr,
pv_t value),
void *closure);
#endif /* PROLOGUE_VALUE_H */