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//===--------------------- Instruction.h ------------------------*- C++ -*-===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
/// \file
/// This file defines abstractions used by the Pipeline to model register reads,
/// register writes and instructions.
#include "llvm/ADT/ArrayRef.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/STLExtras.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallVector.h"
#include "llvm/MC/MCRegister.h" // definition of MCPhysReg.
#include "llvm/Support/MathExtras.h"
#ifndef NDEBUG
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
#include <memory>
namespace llvm {
namespace mca {
constexpr int UNKNOWN_CYCLES = -512;
/// A register write descriptor.
struct WriteDescriptor {
// Operand index. The index is negative for implicit writes only.
// For implicit writes, the actual operand index is computed performing
// a bitwise not of the OpIndex.
int OpIndex;
// Write latency. Number of cycles before write-back stage.
unsigned Latency;
// This field is set to a value different than zero only if this
// is an implicit definition.
MCPhysReg RegisterID;
// Instruction itineraries would set this field to the SchedClass ID.
// Otherwise, it defaults to the WriteResourceID from the MCWriteLatencyEntry
// element associated to this write.
// When computing read latencies, this value is matched against the
// "ReadAdvance" information. The hardware backend may implement
// dedicated forwarding paths to quickly propagate write results to dependent
// instructions waiting in the reservation station (effectively bypassing the
// write-back stage).
unsigned SClassOrWriteResourceID;
// True only if this is a write obtained from an optional definition.
// Optional definitions are allowed to reference regID zero (i.e. "no
// register").
bool IsOptionalDef;
bool isImplicitWrite() const { return OpIndex < 0; };
/// A register read descriptor.
struct ReadDescriptor {
// A MCOperand index. This is used by the Dispatch logic to identify register
// reads. Implicit reads have negative indices. The actual operand index of an
// implicit read is the bitwise not of field OpIndex.
int OpIndex;
// The actual "UseIdx". This is used to query the ReadAdvance table. Explicit
// uses always come first in the sequence of uses.
unsigned UseIndex;
// This field is only set if this is an implicit read.
MCPhysReg RegisterID;
// Scheduling Class Index. It is used to query the scheduling model for the
// MCSchedClassDesc object.
unsigned SchedClassID;
bool isImplicitRead() const { return OpIndex < 0; };
class ReadState;
/// A critical data dependency descriptor.
/// Field RegID is set to the invalid register for memory dependencies.
struct CriticalDependency {
unsigned IID;
MCPhysReg RegID;
unsigned Cycles;
/// Tracks uses of a register definition (e.g. register write).
/// Each implicit/explicit register write is associated with an instance of
/// this class. A WriteState object tracks the dependent users of a
/// register write. It also tracks how many cycles are left before the write
/// back stage.
class WriteState {
const WriteDescriptor *WD;
// On instruction issue, this field is set equal to the write latency.
// Before instruction issue, this field defaults to -512, a special
// value that represents an "unknown" number of cycles.
int CyclesLeft;
// Actual register defined by this write. This field is only used
// to speedup queries on the register file.
// For implicit writes, this field always matches the value of
// field RegisterID from WD.
MCPhysReg RegisterID;
// Physical register file that serves register RegisterID.
unsigned PRFID;
// True if this write implicitly clears the upper portion of RegisterID's
// super-registers.
bool ClearsSuperRegs;
// True if this write is from a dependency breaking zero-idiom instruction.
bool WritesZero;
// True if this write has been eliminated at register renaming stage.
// Example: a register move doesn't consume scheduler/pipleline resources if
// it is eliminated at register renaming stage. It still consumes
// decode bandwidth, and ROB entries.
bool IsEliminated;
// This field is set if this is a partial register write, and it has a false
// dependency on any previous write of the same register (or a portion of it).
// DependentWrite must be able to complete before this write completes, so
// that we don't break the WAW, and the two writes can be merged together.
const WriteState *DependentWrite;
// A partial write that is in a false dependency with this write.
WriteState *PartialWrite;
unsigned DependentWriteCyclesLeft;
// Critical register dependency for this write.
CriticalDependency CRD;
// A list of dependent reads. Users is a set of dependent
// reads. A dependent read is added to the set only if CyclesLeft
// is "unknown". As soon as CyclesLeft is 'known', each user in the set
// gets notified with the actual CyclesLeft.
// The 'second' element of a pair is a "ReadAdvance" number of cycles.
SmallVector<std::pair<ReadState *, int>, 4> Users;
WriteState(const WriteDescriptor &Desc, MCPhysReg RegID,
bool clearsSuperRegs = false, bool writesZero = false)
: WD(&Desc), CyclesLeft(UNKNOWN_CYCLES), RegisterID(RegID), PRFID(0),
ClearsSuperRegs(clearsSuperRegs), WritesZero(writesZero),
IsEliminated(false), DependentWrite(nullptr), PartialWrite(nullptr),
DependentWriteCyclesLeft(0), CRD() {}
WriteState(const WriteState &Other) = default;
WriteState &operator=(const WriteState &Other) = default;
int getCyclesLeft() const { return CyclesLeft; }
unsigned getWriteResourceID() const { return WD->SClassOrWriteResourceID; }
MCPhysReg getRegisterID() const { return RegisterID; }
unsigned getRegisterFileID() const { return PRFID; }
unsigned getLatency() const { return WD->Latency; }
unsigned getDependentWriteCyclesLeft() const {
return DependentWriteCyclesLeft;
const WriteState *getDependentWrite() const { return DependentWrite; }
const CriticalDependency &getCriticalRegDep() const { return CRD; }
// This method adds Use to the set of data dependent reads. IID is the
// instruction identifier associated with this write. ReadAdvance is the
// number of cycles to subtract from the latency of this data dependency.
// Use is in a RAW dependency with this write.
void addUser(unsigned IID, ReadState *Use, int ReadAdvance);
// Use is a younger register write that is in a false dependency with this
// write. IID is the instruction identifier associated with this write.
void addUser(unsigned IID, WriteState *Use);
unsigned getNumUsers() const {
unsigned NumUsers = Users.size();
if (PartialWrite)
return NumUsers;
bool clearsSuperRegisters() const { return ClearsSuperRegs; }
bool isWriteZero() const { return WritesZero; }
bool isEliminated() const { return IsEliminated; }
bool isReady() const {
if (DependentWrite)
return false;
unsigned CyclesLeft = getDependentWriteCyclesLeft();
return !CyclesLeft || CyclesLeft < getLatency();
bool isExecuted() const {
return CyclesLeft != UNKNOWN_CYCLES && CyclesLeft <= 0;
void setDependentWrite(const WriteState *Other) { DependentWrite = Other; }
void writeStartEvent(unsigned IID, MCPhysReg RegID, unsigned Cycles);
void setWriteZero() { WritesZero = true; }
void setEliminated() {
assert(Users.empty() && "Write is in an inconsistent state.");
CyclesLeft = 0;
IsEliminated = true;
void setPRF(unsigned PRF) { PRFID = PRF; }
// On every cycle, update CyclesLeft and notify dependent users.
void cycleEvent();
void onInstructionIssued(unsigned IID);
#ifndef NDEBUG
void dump() const;
/// Tracks register operand latency in cycles.
/// A read may be dependent on more than one write. This occurs when some
/// writes only partially update the register associated to this read.
class ReadState {
const ReadDescriptor *RD;
// Physical register identified associated to this read.
MCPhysReg RegisterID;
// Physical register file that serves register RegisterID.
unsigned PRFID;
// Number of writes that contribute to the definition of RegisterID.
// In the absence of partial register updates, the number of DependentWrites
// cannot be more than one.
unsigned DependentWrites;
// Number of cycles left before RegisterID can be read. This value depends on
// the latency of all the dependent writes. It defaults to UNKNOWN_CYCLES.
// It gets set to the value of field TotalCycles only when the 'CyclesLeft' of
// every dependent write is known.
int CyclesLeft;
// This field is updated on every writeStartEvent(). When the number of
// dependent writes (i.e. field DependentWrite) is zero, this value is
// propagated to field CyclesLeft.
unsigned TotalCycles;
// Longest register dependency.
CriticalDependency CRD;
// This field is set to true only if there are no dependent writes, and
// there are no `CyclesLeft' to wait.
bool IsReady;
// True if this is a read from a known zero register.
bool IsZero;
// True if this register read is from a dependency-breaking instruction.
bool IndependentFromDef;
ReadState(const ReadDescriptor &Desc, MCPhysReg RegID)
: RD(&Desc), RegisterID(RegID), PRFID(0), DependentWrites(0),
CyclesLeft(UNKNOWN_CYCLES), TotalCycles(0), CRD(), IsReady(true),
IsZero(false), IndependentFromDef(false) {}
const ReadDescriptor &getDescriptor() const { return *RD; }
unsigned getSchedClass() const { return RD->SchedClassID; }
MCPhysReg getRegisterID() const { return RegisterID; }
unsigned getRegisterFileID() const { return PRFID; }
const CriticalDependency &getCriticalRegDep() const { return CRD; }
bool isPending() const { return !IndependentFromDef && CyclesLeft > 0; }
bool isReady() const { return IsReady; }
bool isImplicitRead() const { return RD->isImplicitRead(); }
bool isIndependentFromDef() const { return IndependentFromDef; }
void setIndependentFromDef() { IndependentFromDef = true; }
void cycleEvent();
void writeStartEvent(unsigned IID, MCPhysReg RegID, unsigned Cycles);
void setDependentWrites(unsigned Writes) {
DependentWrites = Writes;
IsReady = !Writes;
bool isReadZero() const { return IsZero; }
void setReadZero() { IsZero = true; }
void setPRF(unsigned ID) { PRFID = ID; }
/// A sequence of cycles.
/// This class can be used as a building block to construct ranges of cycles.
class CycleSegment {
unsigned Begin; // Inclusive.
unsigned End; // Exclusive.
bool Reserved; // Resources associated to this segment must be reserved.
CycleSegment(unsigned StartCycle, unsigned EndCycle, bool IsReserved = false)
: Begin(StartCycle), End(EndCycle), Reserved(IsReserved) {}
bool contains(unsigned Cycle) const { return Cycle >= Begin && Cycle < End; }
bool startsAfter(const CycleSegment &CS) const { return End <= CS.Begin; }
bool endsBefore(const CycleSegment &CS) const { return Begin >= CS.End; }
bool overlaps(const CycleSegment &CS) const {
return !startsAfter(CS) && !endsBefore(CS);
bool isExecuting() const { return Begin == 0 && End != 0; }
bool isExecuted() const { return End == 0; }
bool operator<(const CycleSegment &Other) const {
return Begin < Other.Begin;
CycleSegment &operator--(void) {
if (Begin)
if (End)
return *this;
bool isValid() const { return Begin <= End; }
unsigned size() const { return End - Begin; };
void subtract(unsigned Cycles) {
assert(End >= Cycles);
End -= Cycles;
unsigned begin() const { return Begin; }
unsigned end() const { return End; }
void setEnd(unsigned NewEnd) { End = NewEnd; }
bool isReserved() const { return Reserved; }
void setReserved() { Reserved = true; }
/// Helper used by class InstrDesc to describe how hardware resources
/// are used.
/// This class describes how many resource units of a specific resource kind
/// (and how many cycles) are "used" by an instruction.
struct ResourceUsage {
CycleSegment CS;
unsigned NumUnits;
ResourceUsage(CycleSegment Cycles, unsigned Units = 1)
: CS(Cycles), NumUnits(Units) {}
unsigned size() const { return CS.size(); }
bool isReserved() const { return CS.isReserved(); }
void setReserved() { CS.setReserved(); }
/// An instruction descriptor
struct InstrDesc {
SmallVector<WriteDescriptor, 4> Writes; // Implicit writes are at the end.
SmallVector<ReadDescriptor, 4> Reads; // Implicit reads are at the end.
// For every resource used by an instruction of this kind, this vector
// reports the number of "consumed cycles".
SmallVector<std::pair<uint64_t, ResourceUsage>, 4> Resources;
// A bitmask of used hardware buffers.
uint64_t UsedBuffers;
// A bitmask of used processor resource units.
uint64_t UsedProcResUnits;
// A bitmask of used processor resource groups.
uint64_t UsedProcResGroups;
unsigned MaxLatency;
// Number of MicroOps for this instruction.
unsigned NumMicroOps;
// SchedClassID used to construct this InstrDesc.
// This information is currently used by views to do fast queries on the
// subtarget when computing the reciprocal throughput.
unsigned SchedClassID;
bool MayLoad;
bool MayStore;
bool HasSideEffects;
bool BeginGroup;
bool EndGroup;
// True if all buffered resources are in-order, and there is at least one
// buffer which is a dispatch hazard (BufferSize = 0).
bool MustIssueImmediately;
// A zero latency instruction doesn't consume any scheduler resources.
bool isZeroLatency() const { return !MaxLatency && Resources.empty(); }
InstrDesc() = default;
InstrDesc(const InstrDesc &Other) = delete;
InstrDesc &operator=(const InstrDesc &Other) = delete;
/// Base class for instructions consumed by the simulation pipeline.
/// This class tracks data dependencies as well as generic properties
/// of the instruction.
class InstructionBase {
const InstrDesc &Desc;
// This field is set for instructions that are candidates for move
// elimination. For more information about move elimination, see the
// definition of RegisterMappingTracker in RegisterFile.h
bool IsOptimizableMove;
// Output dependencies.
// One entry per each implicit and explicit register definition.
SmallVector<WriteState, 4> Defs;
// Input dependencies.
// One entry per each implicit and explicit register use.
SmallVector<ReadState, 4> Uses;
InstructionBase(const InstrDesc &D) : Desc(D), IsOptimizableMove(false) {}
SmallVectorImpl<WriteState> &getDefs() { return Defs; }
const ArrayRef<WriteState> getDefs() const { return Defs; }
SmallVectorImpl<ReadState> &getUses() { return Uses; }
const ArrayRef<ReadState> getUses() const { return Uses; }
const InstrDesc &getDesc() const { return Desc; }
unsigned getLatency() const { return Desc.MaxLatency; }
unsigned getNumMicroOps() const { return Desc.NumMicroOps; }
bool hasDependentUsers() const {
return any_of(Defs,
[](const WriteState &Def) { return Def.getNumUsers() > 0; });
unsigned getNumUsers() const {
unsigned NumUsers = 0;
for (const WriteState &Def : Defs)
NumUsers += Def.getNumUsers();
return NumUsers;
// Returns true if this instruction is a candidate for move elimination.
bool isOptimizableMove() const { return IsOptimizableMove; }
void setOptimizableMove() { IsOptimizableMove = true; }
bool isMemOp() const { return Desc.MayLoad || Desc.MayStore; }
/// An instruction propagated through the simulated instruction pipeline.
/// This class is used to monitor changes to the internal state of instructions
/// that are sent to the various components of the simulated hardware pipeline.
class Instruction : public InstructionBase {
enum InstrStage {
IS_INVALID, // Instruction in an invalid state.
IS_DISPATCHED, // Instruction dispatched but operands are not ready.
IS_PENDING, // Instruction is not ready, but operand latency is known.
IS_READY, // Instruction dispatched and operands ready.
IS_EXECUTING, // Instruction issued.
IS_EXECUTED, // Instruction executed. Values are written back.
IS_RETIRED // Instruction retired.
// The current instruction stage.
enum InstrStage Stage;
// This value defaults to the instruction latency. This instruction is
// considered executed when field CyclesLeft goes to zero.
int CyclesLeft;
// Retire Unit token ID for this instruction.
unsigned RCUTokenID;
// LS token ID for this instruction.
// This field is set to the invalid null token if this is not a memory
// operation.
unsigned LSUTokenID;
// A resource mask which identifies buffered resources consumed by this
// instruction at dispatch stage. In the absence of macro-fusion, this value
// should always match the value of field `UsedBuffers` from the instruction
// descriptor (see field InstrBase::Desc).
uint64_t UsedBuffers;
// Critical register dependency.
CriticalDependency CriticalRegDep;
// Critical memory dependency.
CriticalDependency CriticalMemDep;
// A bitmask of busy processor resource units.
// This field is set to zero only if execution is not delayed during this
// cycle because of unavailable pipeline resources.
uint64_t CriticalResourceMask;
// True if this instruction has been optimized at register renaming stage.
bool IsEliminated;
Instruction(const InstrDesc &D)
: InstructionBase(D), Stage(IS_INVALID), CyclesLeft(UNKNOWN_CYCLES),
RCUTokenID(0), LSUTokenID(0), UsedBuffers(D.UsedBuffers),
CriticalRegDep(), CriticalMemDep(), CriticalResourceMask(0),
IsEliminated(false) {}
unsigned getRCUTokenID() const { return RCUTokenID; }
unsigned getLSUTokenID() const { return LSUTokenID; }
void setLSUTokenID(unsigned LSUTok) { LSUTokenID = LSUTok; }
uint64_t getUsedBuffers() const { return UsedBuffers; }
void setUsedBuffers(uint64_t Mask) { UsedBuffers = Mask; }
void clearUsedBuffers() { UsedBuffers = 0ULL; }
int getCyclesLeft() const { return CyclesLeft; }
// Transition to the dispatch stage, and assign a RCUToken to this
// instruction. The RCUToken is used to track the completion of every
// register write performed by this instruction.
void dispatch(unsigned RCUTokenID);
// Instruction issued. Transition to the IS_EXECUTING state, and update
// all the register definitions.
void execute(unsigned IID);
// Force a transition from the IS_DISPATCHED state to the IS_READY or
// IS_PENDING state. State transitions normally occur either at the beginning
// of a new cycle (see method cycleEvent()), or as a result of another issue
// event. This method is called every time the instruction might have changed
// in state. It internally delegates to method updateDispatched() and
// updateWaiting().
void update();
bool updateDispatched();
bool updatePending();
bool isDispatched() const { return Stage == IS_DISPATCHED; }
bool isPending() const { return Stage == IS_PENDING; }
bool isReady() const { return Stage == IS_READY; }
bool isExecuting() const { return Stage == IS_EXECUTING; }
bool isExecuted() const { return Stage == IS_EXECUTED; }
bool isRetired() const { return Stage == IS_RETIRED; }
bool isEliminated() const { return IsEliminated; }
// Forces a transition from state IS_DISPATCHED to state IS_EXECUTED.
void forceExecuted();
void setEliminated() { IsEliminated = true; }
void retire() {
assert(isExecuted() && "Instruction is in an invalid state!");
const CriticalDependency &getCriticalRegDep() const { return CriticalRegDep; }
const CriticalDependency &getCriticalMemDep() const { return CriticalMemDep; }
const CriticalDependency &computeCriticalRegDep();
void setCriticalMemDep(const CriticalDependency &MemDep) {
CriticalMemDep = MemDep;
uint64_t getCriticalResourceMask() const { return CriticalResourceMask; }
void setCriticalResourceMask(uint64_t ResourceMask) {
CriticalResourceMask = ResourceMask;
void cycleEvent();
/// An InstRef contains both a SourceMgr index and Instruction pair. The index
/// is used as a unique identifier for the instruction. MCA will make use of
/// this index as a key throughout MCA.
class InstRef {
std::pair<unsigned, Instruction *> Data;
InstRef() : Data(std::make_pair(0, nullptr)) {}
InstRef(unsigned Index, Instruction *I) : Data(std::make_pair(Index, I)) {}
bool operator==(const InstRef &Other) const { return Data == Other.Data; }
bool operator!=(const InstRef &Other) const { return Data != Other.Data; }
bool operator<(const InstRef &Other) const {
return Data.first < Other.Data.first;
unsigned getSourceIndex() const { return Data.first; }
Instruction *getInstruction() { return Data.second; }
const Instruction *getInstruction() const { return Data.second; }
/// Returns true if this references a valid instruction.
explicit operator bool() const { return Data.second != nullptr; }
/// Invalidate this reference.
void invalidate() { Data.second = nullptr; }
#ifndef NDEBUG
void print(raw_ostream &OS) const { OS << getSourceIndex(); }
#ifndef NDEBUG
inline raw_ostream &operator<<(raw_ostream &OS, const InstRef &IR) {
return OS;
/// A reference to a register write.
/// This class is mainly used by the register file to describe register
/// mappings. It correlates a register write to the source index of the
/// defining instruction.
class WriteRef {
std::pair<unsigned, WriteState *> Data;
static const unsigned INVALID_IID;
WriteRef() : Data(INVALID_IID, nullptr) {}
WriteRef(unsigned SourceIndex, WriteState *WS) : Data(SourceIndex, WS) {}
unsigned getSourceIndex() const { return Data.first; }
const WriteState *getWriteState() const { return Data.second; }
WriteState *getWriteState() { return Data.second; }
void invalidate() { Data.second = nullptr; }
bool isWriteZero() const {
assert(isValid() && "Invalid null WriteState found!");
return getWriteState()->isWriteZero();
/// Returns true if this register write has been executed, and the new
/// register value is therefore available to users.
bool isAvailable() const {
if (getSourceIndex() == INVALID_IID)
return false;
const WriteState *WS = getWriteState();
return !WS || WS->isExecuted();
bool isValid() const { return Data.second && Data.first != INVALID_IID; }
bool operator==(const WriteRef &Other) const { return Data == Other.Data; }
#ifndef NDEBUG
void dump() const;
} // namespace mca
} // namespace llvm