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//===-- LoopUnswitch.cpp - Hoist loop-invariant conditionals in loop ------===//
// The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
// This file is distributed under the University of Illinois Open Source
// License. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
// This pass transforms loops that contain branches on loop-invariant conditions
// to have multiple loops. For example, it turns the left into the right code:
// for (...) if (lic)
// A for (...)
// if (lic) A; B; C
// B else
// C for (...)
// A; C
// This can increase the size of the code exponentially (doubling it every time
// a loop is unswitched) so we only unswitch if the resultant code will be
// smaller than a threshold.
// This pass expects LICM to be run before it to hoist invariant conditions out
// of the loop, to make the unswitching opportunity obvious.
#include "llvm/Transforms/Scalar.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/STLExtras.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallPtrSet.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/Statistic.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/AssumptionCache.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/CodeMetrics.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/InstructionSimplify.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/LoopInfo.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/LoopPass.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/ScalarEvolution.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/TargetTransformInfo.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Constants.h"
#include "llvm/IR/DerivedTypes.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Dominators.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Function.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Instructions.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Module.h"
#include "llvm/IR/MDBuilder.h"
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"
#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/BasicBlockUtils.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/Cloning.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/Local.h"
#include <algorithm>
#include <map>
#include <set>
using namespace llvm;
#define DEBUG_TYPE "loop-unswitch"
STATISTIC(NumBranches, "Number of branches unswitched");
STATISTIC(NumSwitches, "Number of switches unswitched");
STATISTIC(NumSelects , "Number of selects unswitched");
STATISTIC(NumTrivial , "Number of unswitches that are trivial");
STATISTIC(NumSimplify, "Number of simplifications of unswitched code");
STATISTIC(TotalInsts, "Total number of instructions analyzed");
// The specific value of 100 here was chosen based only on intuition and a
// few specific examples.
static cl::opt<unsigned>
Threshold("loop-unswitch-threshold", cl::desc("Max loop size to unswitch"),
cl::init(100), cl::Hidden);
namespace {
class LUAnalysisCache {
typedef DenseMap<const SwitchInst*, SmallPtrSet<const Value *, 8> >
typedef UnswitchedValsMap::iterator UnswitchedValsIt;
struct LoopProperties {
unsigned CanBeUnswitchedCount;
unsigned WasUnswitchedCount;
unsigned SizeEstimation;
UnswitchedValsMap UnswitchedVals;
// Here we use std::map instead of DenseMap, since we need to keep valid
// LoopProperties pointer for current loop for better performance.
typedef std::map<const Loop*, LoopProperties> LoopPropsMap;
typedef LoopPropsMap::iterator LoopPropsMapIt;
LoopPropsMap LoopsProperties;
UnswitchedValsMap *CurLoopInstructions;
LoopProperties *CurrentLoopProperties;
// A loop unswitching with an estimated cost above this threshold
// is not performed. MaxSize is turned into unswitching quota for
// the current loop, and reduced correspondingly, though note that
// the quota is returned by releaseMemory() when the loop has been
// processed, so that MaxSize will return to its previous
// value. So in most cases MaxSize will equal the Threshold flag
// when a new loop is processed. An exception to that is that
// MaxSize will have a smaller value while processing nested loops
// that were introduced due to loop unswitching of an outer loop.
// FIXME: The way that MaxSize works is subtle and depends on the
// pass manager processing loops and calling releaseMemory() in a
// specific order. It would be good to find a more straightforward
// way of doing what MaxSize does.
unsigned MaxSize;
: CurLoopInstructions(nullptr), CurrentLoopProperties(nullptr),
MaxSize(Threshold) {}
// Analyze loop. Check its size, calculate is it possible to unswitch
// it. Returns true if we can unswitch this loop.
bool countLoop(const Loop *L, const TargetTransformInfo &TTI,
AssumptionCache *AC);
// Clean all data related to given loop.
void forgetLoop(const Loop *L);
// Mark case value as unswitched.
// Since SI instruction can be partly unswitched, in order to avoid
// extra unswitching in cloned loops keep track all unswitched values.
void setUnswitched(const SwitchInst *SI, const Value *V);
// Check was this case value unswitched before or not.
bool isUnswitched(const SwitchInst *SI, const Value *V);
// Returns true if another unswitching could be done within the cost
// threshold.
bool CostAllowsUnswitching();
// Clone all loop-unswitch related loop properties.
// Redistribute unswitching quotas.
// Note, that new loop data is stored inside the VMap.
void cloneData(const Loop *NewLoop, const Loop *OldLoop,
const ValueToValueMapTy &VMap);
class LoopUnswitch : public LoopPass {
LoopInfo *LI; // Loop information
LPPassManager *LPM;
AssumptionCache *AC;
// LoopProcessWorklist - Used to check if second loop needs processing
// after RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant rewrites first loop.
std::vector<Loop*> LoopProcessWorklist;
LUAnalysisCache BranchesInfo;
bool OptimizeForSize;
bool redoLoop;
Loop *currentLoop;
DominatorTree *DT;
BasicBlock *loopHeader;
BasicBlock *loopPreheader;
// LoopBlocks contains all of the basic blocks of the loop, including the
// preheader of the loop, the body of the loop, and the exit blocks of the
// loop, in that order.
std::vector<BasicBlock*> LoopBlocks;
// NewBlocks contained cloned copy of basic blocks from LoopBlocks.
std::vector<BasicBlock*> NewBlocks;
static char ID; // Pass ID, replacement for typeid
explicit LoopUnswitch(bool Os = false) :
LoopPass(ID), OptimizeForSize(Os), redoLoop(false),
currentLoop(nullptr), DT(nullptr), loopHeader(nullptr),
loopPreheader(nullptr) {
bool runOnLoop(Loop *L, LPPassManager &LPM) override;
bool processCurrentLoop();
/// This transformation requires natural loop information & requires that
/// loop preheaders be inserted into the CFG.
void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &AU) const override {
void releaseMemory() override {
void initLoopData() {
loopHeader = currentLoop->getHeader();
loopPreheader = currentLoop->getLoopPreheader();
/// Split all of the edges from inside the loop to their exit blocks.
/// Update the appropriate Phi nodes as we do so.
void SplitExitEdges(Loop *L, const SmallVectorImpl<BasicBlock *> &ExitBlocks);
bool UnswitchIfProfitable(Value *LoopCond, Constant *Val,
TerminatorInst *TI = nullptr);
void UnswitchTrivialCondition(Loop *L, Value *Cond, Constant *Val,
BasicBlock *ExitBlock, TerminatorInst *TI);
void UnswitchNontrivialCondition(Value *LIC, Constant *OnVal, Loop *L,
TerminatorInst *TI);
void RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant(Loop *L, Value *LIC,
Constant *Val, bool isEqual);
void EmitPreheaderBranchOnCondition(Value *LIC, Constant *Val,
BasicBlock *TrueDest,
BasicBlock *FalseDest,
Instruction *InsertPt,
TerminatorInst *TI);
void SimplifyCode(std::vector<Instruction*> &Worklist, Loop *L);
bool IsTrivialUnswitchCondition(Value *Cond, Constant **Val = nullptr,
BasicBlock **LoopExit = nullptr);
// Analyze loop. Check its size, calculate is it possible to unswitch
// it. Returns true if we can unswitch this loop.
bool LUAnalysisCache::countLoop(const Loop *L, const TargetTransformInfo &TTI,
AssumptionCache *AC) {
LoopPropsMapIt PropsIt;
bool Inserted;
std::tie(PropsIt, Inserted) =
LoopsProperties.insert(std::make_pair(L, LoopProperties()));
LoopProperties &Props = PropsIt->second;
if (Inserted) {
// New loop.
// Limit the number of instructions to avoid causing significant code
// expansion, and the number of basic blocks, to avoid loops with
// large numbers of branches which cause loop unswitching to go crazy.
// This is a very ad-hoc heuristic.
SmallPtrSet<const Value *, 32> EphValues;
CodeMetrics::collectEphemeralValues(L, AC, EphValues);
// FIXME: This is overly conservative because it does not take into
// consideration code simplification opportunities and code that can
// be shared by the resultant unswitched loops.
CodeMetrics Metrics;
for (Loop::block_iterator I = L->block_begin(), E = L->block_end(); I != E;
Metrics.analyzeBasicBlock(*I, TTI, EphValues);
Props.SizeEstimation = Metrics.NumInsts;
Props.CanBeUnswitchedCount = MaxSize / (Props.SizeEstimation);
Props.WasUnswitchedCount = 0;
MaxSize -= Props.SizeEstimation * Props.CanBeUnswitchedCount;
if (Metrics.notDuplicatable) {
DEBUG(dbgs() << "NOT unswitching loop %"
<< L->getHeader()->getName() << ", contents cannot be "
<< "duplicated!\n");
return false;
// Be careful. This links are good only before new loop addition.
CurrentLoopProperties = &Props;
CurLoopInstructions = &Props.UnswitchedVals;
return true;
// Clean all data related to given loop.
void LUAnalysisCache::forgetLoop(const Loop *L) {
LoopPropsMapIt LIt = LoopsProperties.find(L);
if (LIt != LoopsProperties.end()) {
LoopProperties &Props = LIt->second;
MaxSize += (Props.CanBeUnswitchedCount + Props.WasUnswitchedCount) *
CurrentLoopProperties = nullptr;
CurLoopInstructions = nullptr;
// Mark case value as unswitched.
// Since SI instruction can be partly unswitched, in order to avoid
// extra unswitching in cloned loops keep track all unswitched values.
void LUAnalysisCache::setUnswitched(const SwitchInst *SI, const Value *V) {
// Check was this case value unswitched before or not.
bool LUAnalysisCache::isUnswitched(const SwitchInst *SI, const Value *V) {
return (*CurLoopInstructions)[SI].count(V);
bool LUAnalysisCache::CostAllowsUnswitching() {
return CurrentLoopProperties->CanBeUnswitchedCount > 0;
// Clone all loop-unswitch related loop properties.
// Redistribute unswitching quotas.
// Note, that new loop data is stored inside the VMap.
void LUAnalysisCache::cloneData(const Loop *NewLoop, const Loop *OldLoop,
const ValueToValueMapTy &VMap) {
LoopProperties &NewLoopProps = LoopsProperties[NewLoop];
LoopProperties &OldLoopProps = *CurrentLoopProperties;
UnswitchedValsMap &Insts = OldLoopProps.UnswitchedVals;
// Reallocate "can-be-unswitched quota"
NewLoopProps.WasUnswitchedCount = 0;
unsigned Quota = OldLoopProps.CanBeUnswitchedCount;
NewLoopProps.CanBeUnswitchedCount = Quota / 2;
OldLoopProps.CanBeUnswitchedCount = Quota - Quota / 2;
NewLoopProps.SizeEstimation = OldLoopProps.SizeEstimation;
// Clone unswitched values info:
// for new loop switches we clone info about values that was
// already unswitched and has redundant successors.
for (UnswitchedValsIt I = Insts.begin(); I != Insts.end(); ++I) {
const SwitchInst *OldInst = I->first;
Value *NewI = VMap.lookup(OldInst);
const SwitchInst *NewInst = cast_or_null<SwitchInst>(NewI);
assert(NewInst && "All instructions that are in SrcBB must be in VMap.");
NewLoopProps.UnswitchedVals[NewInst] = OldLoopProps.UnswitchedVals[OldInst];
char LoopUnswitch::ID = 0;
INITIALIZE_PASS_BEGIN(LoopUnswitch, "loop-unswitch", "Unswitch loops",
false, false)
INITIALIZE_PASS_END(LoopUnswitch, "loop-unswitch", "Unswitch loops",
false, false)
Pass *llvm::createLoopUnswitchPass(bool Os) {
return new LoopUnswitch(Os);
/// FindLIVLoopCondition - Cond is a condition that occurs in L. If it is
/// invariant in the loop, or has an invariant piece, return the invariant.
/// Otherwise, return null.
static Value *FindLIVLoopCondition(Value *Cond, Loop *L, bool &Changed) {
// We started analyze new instruction, increment scanned instructions counter.
// We can never unswitch on vector conditions.
if (Cond->getType()->isVectorTy())
return nullptr;
// Constants should be folded, not unswitched on!
if (isa<Constant>(Cond)) return nullptr;
// Hoist simple values out.
if (L->makeLoopInvariant(Cond, Changed))
return Cond;
if (BinaryOperator *BO = dyn_cast<BinaryOperator>(Cond))
if (BO->getOpcode() == Instruction::And ||
BO->getOpcode() == Instruction::Or) {
// If either the left or right side is invariant, we can unswitch on this,
// which will cause the branch to go away in one loop and the condition to
// simplify in the other one.
if (Value *LHS = FindLIVLoopCondition(BO->getOperand(0), L, Changed))
return LHS;
if (Value *RHS = FindLIVLoopCondition(BO->getOperand(1), L, Changed))
return RHS;
return nullptr;
bool LoopUnswitch::runOnLoop(Loop *L, LPPassManager &LPM_Ref) {
if (skipOptnoneFunction(L))
return false;
AC = &getAnalysis<AssumptionCacheTracker>().getAssumptionCache(
LI = &getAnalysis<LoopInfoWrapperPass>().getLoopInfo();
LPM = &LPM_Ref;
DominatorTreeWrapperPass *DTWP =
DT = DTWP ? &DTWP->getDomTree() : nullptr;
currentLoop = L;
Function *F = currentLoop->getHeader()->getParent();
bool Changed = false;
do {
redoLoop = false;
Changed |= processCurrentLoop();
} while(redoLoop);
if (Changed) {
// FIXME: Reconstruct dom info, because it is not preserved properly.
if (DT)
return Changed;
/// processCurrentLoop - Do actual work and unswitch loop if possible
/// and profitable.
bool LoopUnswitch::processCurrentLoop() {
bool Changed = false;
// If LoopSimplify was unable to form a preheader, don't do any unswitching.
if (!loopPreheader)
return false;
// Loops with indirectbr cannot be cloned.
if (!currentLoop->isSafeToClone())
return false;
// Without dedicated exits, splitting the exit edge may fail.
if (!currentLoop->hasDedicatedExits())
return false;
LLVMContext &Context = loopHeader->getContext();
// Probably we reach the quota of branches for this loop. If so
// stop unswitching.
if (!BranchesInfo.countLoop(
currentLoop, getAnalysis<TargetTransformInfoWrapperPass>().getTTI(
return false;
// Loop over all of the basic blocks in the loop. If we find an interior
// block that is branching on a loop-invariant condition, we can unswitch this
// loop.
for (Loop::block_iterator I = currentLoop->block_begin(),
E = currentLoop->block_end(); I != E; ++I) {
TerminatorInst *TI = (*I)->getTerminator();
if (BranchInst *BI = dyn_cast<BranchInst>(TI)) {
// If this isn't branching on an invariant condition, we can't unswitch
// it.
if (BI->isConditional()) {
// See if this, or some part of it, is loop invariant. If so, we can
// unswitch on it if we desire.
Value *LoopCond = FindLIVLoopCondition(BI->getCondition(),
currentLoop, Changed);
if (LoopCond &&
UnswitchIfProfitable(LoopCond, ConstantInt::getTrue(Context), TI)) {
return true;
} else if (SwitchInst *SI = dyn_cast<SwitchInst>(TI)) {
Value *LoopCond = FindLIVLoopCondition(SI->getCondition(),
currentLoop, Changed);
unsigned NumCases = SI->getNumCases();
if (LoopCond && NumCases) {
// Find a value to unswitch on:
// FIXME: this should chose the most expensive case!
// FIXME: scan for a case with a non-critical edge?
Constant *UnswitchVal = nullptr;
// Do not process same value again and again.
// At this point we have some cases already unswitched and
// some not yet unswitched. Let's find the first not yet unswitched one.
for (SwitchInst::CaseIt i = SI->case_begin(), e = SI->case_end();
i != e; ++i) {
Constant *UnswitchValCandidate = i.getCaseValue();
if (!BranchesInfo.isUnswitched(SI, UnswitchValCandidate)) {
UnswitchVal = UnswitchValCandidate;
if (!UnswitchVal)
if (UnswitchIfProfitable(LoopCond, UnswitchVal)) {
return true;
// Scan the instructions to check for unswitchable values.
for (BasicBlock::iterator BBI = (*I)->begin(), E = (*I)->end();
BBI != E; ++BBI)
if (SelectInst *SI = dyn_cast<SelectInst>(BBI)) {
Value *LoopCond = FindLIVLoopCondition(SI->getCondition(),
currentLoop, Changed);
if (LoopCond && UnswitchIfProfitable(LoopCond,
ConstantInt::getTrue(Context))) {
return true;
return Changed;
/// isTrivialLoopExitBlock - Check to see if all paths from BB exit the
/// loop with no side effects (including infinite loops).
/// If true, we return true and set ExitBB to the block we
/// exit through.
static bool isTrivialLoopExitBlockHelper(Loop *L, BasicBlock *BB,
BasicBlock *&ExitBB,
std::set<BasicBlock*> &Visited) {
if (!Visited.insert(BB).second) {
// Already visited. Without more analysis, this could indicate an infinite
// loop.
return false;
if (!L->contains(BB)) {
// Otherwise, this is a loop exit, this is fine so long as this is the
// first exit.
if (ExitBB) return false;
ExitBB = BB;
return true;
// Otherwise, this is an unvisited intra-loop node. Check all successors.
for (succ_iterator SI = succ_begin(BB), E = succ_end(BB); SI != E; ++SI) {
// Check to see if the successor is a trivial loop exit.
if (!isTrivialLoopExitBlockHelper(L, *SI, ExitBB, Visited))
return false;
// Okay, everything after this looks good, check to make sure that this block
// doesn't include any side effects.
for (BasicBlock::iterator I = BB->begin(), E = BB->end(); I != E; ++I)
if (I->mayHaveSideEffects())
return false;
return true;
/// isTrivialLoopExitBlock - Return true if the specified block unconditionally
/// leads to an exit from the specified loop, and has no side-effects in the
/// process. If so, return the block that is exited to, otherwise return null.
static BasicBlock *isTrivialLoopExitBlock(Loop *L, BasicBlock *BB) {
std::set<BasicBlock*> Visited;
Visited.insert(L->getHeader()); // Branches to header make infinite loops.
BasicBlock *ExitBB = nullptr;
if (isTrivialLoopExitBlockHelper(L, BB, ExitBB, Visited))
return ExitBB;
return nullptr;
/// IsTrivialUnswitchCondition - Check to see if this unswitch condition is
/// trivial: that is, that the condition controls whether or not the loop does
/// anything at all. If this is a trivial condition, unswitching produces no
/// code duplications (equivalently, it produces a simpler loop and a new empty
/// loop, which gets deleted).
/// If this is a trivial condition, return true, otherwise return false. When
/// returning true, this sets Cond and Val to the condition that controls the
/// trivial condition: when Cond dynamically equals Val, the loop is known to
/// exit. Finally, this sets LoopExit to the BB that the loop exits to when
/// Cond == Val.
bool LoopUnswitch::IsTrivialUnswitchCondition(Value *Cond, Constant **Val,
BasicBlock **LoopExit) {
BasicBlock *Header = currentLoop->getHeader();
TerminatorInst *HeaderTerm = Header->getTerminator();
LLVMContext &Context = Header->getContext();
BasicBlock *LoopExitBB = nullptr;
if (BranchInst *BI = dyn_cast<BranchInst>(HeaderTerm)) {
// If the header block doesn't end with a conditional branch on Cond, we
// can't handle it.
if (!BI->isConditional() || BI->getCondition() != Cond)
return false;
// Check to see if a successor of the branch is guaranteed to
// exit through a unique exit block without having any
// side-effects. If so, determine the value of Cond that causes it to do
// this.
if ((LoopExitBB = isTrivialLoopExitBlock(currentLoop,
BI->getSuccessor(0)))) {
if (Val) *Val = ConstantInt::getTrue(Context);
} else if ((LoopExitBB = isTrivialLoopExitBlock(currentLoop,
BI->getSuccessor(1)))) {
if (Val) *Val = ConstantInt::getFalse(Context);
} else if (SwitchInst *SI = dyn_cast<SwitchInst>(HeaderTerm)) {
// If this isn't a switch on Cond, we can't handle it.
if (SI->getCondition() != Cond) return false;
// Check to see if a successor of the switch is guaranteed to go to the
// latch block or exit through a one exit block without having any
// side-effects. If so, determine the value of Cond that causes it to do
// this.
// Note that we can't trivially unswitch on the default case or
// on already unswitched cases.
for (SwitchInst::CaseIt i = SI->case_begin(), e = SI->case_end();
i != e; ++i) {
BasicBlock *LoopExitCandidate;
if ((LoopExitCandidate = isTrivialLoopExitBlock(currentLoop,
i.getCaseSuccessor()))) {
// Okay, we found a trivial case, remember the value that is trivial.
ConstantInt *CaseVal = i.getCaseValue();
// Check that it was not unswitched before, since already unswitched
// trivial vals are looks trivial too.
if (BranchesInfo.isUnswitched(SI, CaseVal))
LoopExitBB = LoopExitCandidate;
if (Val) *Val = CaseVal;
// If we didn't find a single unique LoopExit block, or if the loop exit block
// contains phi nodes, this isn't trivial.
if (!LoopExitBB || isa<PHINode>(LoopExitBB->begin()))
return false; // Can't handle this.
if (LoopExit) *LoopExit = LoopExitBB;
// We already know that nothing uses any scalar values defined inside of this
// loop. As such, we just have to check to see if this loop will execute any
// side-effecting instructions (e.g. stores, calls, volatile loads) in the
// part of the loop that the code *would* execute. We already checked the
// tail, check the header now.
for (BasicBlock::iterator I = Header->begin(), E = Header->end(); I != E; ++I)
if (I->mayHaveSideEffects())
return false;
return true;
/// UnswitchIfProfitable - We have found that we can unswitch currentLoop when
/// LoopCond == Val to simplify the loop. If we decide that this is profitable,
/// unswitch the loop, reprocess the pieces, then return true.
bool LoopUnswitch::UnswitchIfProfitable(Value *LoopCond, Constant *Val,
TerminatorInst *TI) {
Function *F = loopHeader->getParent();
Constant *CondVal = nullptr;
BasicBlock *ExitBlock = nullptr;
if (IsTrivialUnswitchCondition(LoopCond, &CondVal, &ExitBlock)) {
// If the condition is trivial, always unswitch. There is no code growth
// for this case.
UnswitchTrivialCondition(currentLoop, LoopCond, CondVal, ExitBlock, TI);
return true;
// Check to see if it would be profitable to unswitch current loop.
if (!BranchesInfo.CostAllowsUnswitching()) {
DEBUG(dbgs() << "NOT unswitching loop %"
<< currentLoop->getHeader()->getName()
<< " at non-trivial condition '" << *Val
<< "' == " << *LoopCond << "\n"
<< ". Cost too high.\n");
return false;
// Do not do non-trivial unswitch while optimizing for size.
if (OptimizeForSize || F->hasFnAttribute(Attribute::OptimizeForSize))
return false;
UnswitchNontrivialCondition(LoopCond, Val, currentLoop, TI);
return true;
/// CloneLoop - Recursively clone the specified loop and all of its children,
/// mapping the blocks with the specified map.
static Loop *CloneLoop(Loop *L, Loop *PL, ValueToValueMapTy &VM,
LoopInfo *LI, LPPassManager *LPM) {
Loop *New = new Loop();
LPM->insertLoop(New, PL);
// Add all of the blocks in L to the new loop.
for (Loop::block_iterator I = L->block_begin(), E = L->block_end();
I != E; ++I)
if (LI->getLoopFor(*I) == L)
New->addBasicBlockToLoop(cast<BasicBlock>(VM[*I]), *LI);
// Add all of the subloops to the new loop.
for (Loop::iterator I = L->begin(), E = L->end(); I != E; ++I)
CloneLoop(*I, New, VM, LI, LPM);
return New;
static void copyMetadata(Instruction *DstInst, const Instruction *SrcInst,
bool Swapped) {
if (!SrcInst || !SrcInst->hasMetadata())
SmallVector<std::pair<unsigned, MDNode *>, 4> MDs;
for (auto &MD : MDs) {
switch (MD.first) {
case LLVMContext::MD_prof:
if (Swapped && MD.second->getNumOperands() == 3 &&
isa<MDString>(MD.second->getOperand(0))) {
MDString *MDName = cast<MDString>(MD.second->getOperand(0));
if (MDName->getString() == "branch_weights") {
auto *ValT = cast_or_null<ConstantAsMetadata>(
auto *ValF = cast_or_null<ConstantAsMetadata>(
assert(ValT && ValF && "Invalid Operands of branch_weights");
auto NewMD =
MD.second = NewMD;
// fallthrough.
case LLVMContext::MD_dbg:
DstInst->setMetadata(MD.first, MD.second);
/// EmitPreheaderBranchOnCondition - Emit a conditional branch on two values
/// if LIC == Val, branch to TrueDst, otherwise branch to FalseDest. Insert the
/// code immediately before InsertPt.
void LoopUnswitch::EmitPreheaderBranchOnCondition(Value *LIC, Constant *Val,
BasicBlock *TrueDest,
BasicBlock *FalseDest,
Instruction *InsertPt,
TerminatorInst *TI) {
// Insert a conditional branch on LIC to the two preheaders. The original
// code is the true version and the new code is the false version.
Value *BranchVal = LIC;
bool Swapped = false;
if (!isa<ConstantInt>(Val) ||
Val->getType() != Type::getInt1Ty(LIC->getContext()))
BranchVal = new ICmpInst(InsertPt, ICmpInst::ICMP_EQ, LIC, Val);
else if (Val != ConstantInt::getTrue(Val->getContext())) {
// We want to enter the new loop when the condition is true.
std::swap(TrueDest, FalseDest);
Swapped = true;
// Insert the new branch.
BranchInst *BI = BranchInst::Create(TrueDest, FalseDest, BranchVal, InsertPt);
copyMetadata(BI, TI, Swapped);
// If either edge is critical, split it. This helps preserve LoopSimplify
// form for enclosing loops.
auto Options = CriticalEdgeSplittingOptions(DT, LI).setPreserveLCSSA();
SplitCriticalEdge(BI, 0, Options);
SplitCriticalEdge(BI, 1, Options);
/// UnswitchTrivialCondition - Given a loop that has a trivial unswitchable
/// condition in it (a cond branch from its header block to its latch block,
/// where the path through the loop that doesn't execute its body has no
/// side-effects), unswitch it. This doesn't involve any code duplication, just
/// moving the conditional branch outside of the loop and updating loop info.
void LoopUnswitch::UnswitchTrivialCondition(Loop *L, Value *Cond, Constant *Val,
BasicBlock *ExitBlock,
TerminatorInst *TI) {
DEBUG(dbgs() << "loop-unswitch: Trivial-Unswitch loop %"
<< loopHeader->getName() << " [" << L->getBlocks().size()
<< " blocks] in Function "
<< L->getHeader()->getParent()->getName() << " on cond: " << *Val
<< " == " << *Cond << "\n");
// First step, split the preheader, so that we know that there is a safe place
// to insert the conditional branch. We will change loopPreheader to have a
// conditional branch on Cond.
BasicBlock *NewPH = SplitEdge(loopPreheader, loopHeader, DT, LI);
// Now that we have a place to insert the conditional branch, create a place
// to branch to: this is the exit block out of the loop that we should
// short-circuit to.
// Split this block now, so that the loop maintains its exit block, and so
// that the jump from the preheader can execute the contents of the exit block
// without actually branching to it (the exit block should be dominated by the
// loop header, not the preheader).
assert(!L->contains(ExitBlock) && "Exit block is in the loop?");
BasicBlock *NewExit = SplitBlock(ExitBlock, ExitBlock->begin(), DT, LI);
// Okay, now we have a position to branch from and a position to branch to,
// insert the new conditional branch.
EmitPreheaderBranchOnCondition(Cond, Val, NewExit, NewPH,
loopPreheader->getTerminator(), TI);
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(loopPreheader->getTerminator(), L);
// We need to reprocess this loop, it could be unswitched again.
redoLoop = true;
// Now that we know that the loop is never entered when this condition is a
// particular value, rewrite the loop with this info. We know that this will
// at least eliminate the old branch.
RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant(L, Cond, Val, false);
/// SplitExitEdges - Split all of the edges from inside the loop to their exit
/// blocks. Update the appropriate Phi nodes as we do so.
void LoopUnswitch::SplitExitEdges(Loop *L,
const SmallVectorImpl<BasicBlock *> &ExitBlocks){
for (unsigned i = 0, e = ExitBlocks.size(); i != e; ++i) {
BasicBlock *ExitBlock = ExitBlocks[i];
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, 4> Preds(pred_begin(ExitBlock),
// Although SplitBlockPredecessors doesn't preserve loop-simplify in
// general, if we call it on all predecessors of all exits then it does.
SplitBlockPredecessors(ExitBlock, Preds, ".us-lcssa",
/*AliasAnalysis*/ nullptr, DT, LI,
/*PreserveLCSSA*/ true);
/// UnswitchNontrivialCondition - We determined that the loop is profitable
/// to unswitch when LIC equal Val. Split it into loop versions and test the
/// condition outside of either loop. Return the loops created as Out1/Out2.
void LoopUnswitch::UnswitchNontrivialCondition(Value *LIC, Constant *Val,
Loop *L, TerminatorInst *TI) {
Function *F = loopHeader->getParent();
DEBUG(dbgs() << "loop-unswitch: Unswitching loop %"
<< loopHeader->getName() << " [" << L->getBlocks().size()
<< " blocks] in Function " << F->getName()
<< " when '" << *Val << "' == " << *LIC << "\n");
if (ScalarEvolution *SE = getAnalysisIfAvailable<ScalarEvolution>())
// First step, split the preheader and exit blocks, and add these blocks to
// the LoopBlocks list.
BasicBlock *NewPreheader = SplitEdge(loopPreheader, loopHeader, DT, LI);
// We want the loop to come after the preheader, but before the exit blocks.
LoopBlocks.insert(LoopBlocks.end(), L->block_begin(), L->block_end());
SmallVector<BasicBlock*, 8> ExitBlocks;
// Split all of the edges from inside the loop to their exit blocks. Update
// the appropriate Phi nodes as we do so.
SplitExitEdges(L, ExitBlocks);
// The exit blocks may have been changed due to edge splitting, recompute.
// Add exit blocks to the loop blocks.
LoopBlocks.insert(LoopBlocks.end(), ExitBlocks.begin(), ExitBlocks.end());
// Next step, clone all of the basic blocks that make up the loop (including
// the loop preheader and exit blocks), keeping track of the mapping between
// the instructions and blocks.
ValueToValueMapTy VMap;
for (unsigned i = 0, e = LoopBlocks.size(); i != e; ++i) {
BasicBlock *NewBB = CloneBasicBlock(LoopBlocks[i], VMap, ".us", F);
VMap[LoopBlocks[i]] = NewBB; // Keep the BB mapping.
LPM->cloneBasicBlockSimpleAnalysis(LoopBlocks[i], NewBB, L);
// Splice the newly inserted blocks into the function right before the
// original preheader.
F->getBasicBlockList().splice(NewPreheader, F->getBasicBlockList(),
NewBlocks[0], F->end());
// FIXME: We could register any cloned assumptions instead of clearing the
// whole function's cache.
// Now we create the new Loop object for the versioned loop.
Loop *NewLoop = CloneLoop(L, L->getParentLoop(), VMap, LI, LPM);
// Recalculate unswitching quota, inherit simplified switches info for NewBB,
// Probably clone more loop-unswitch related loop properties.
BranchesInfo.cloneData(NewLoop, L, VMap);
Loop *ParentLoop = L->getParentLoop();
if (ParentLoop) {
// Make sure to add the cloned preheader and exit blocks to the parent loop
// as well.
ParentLoop->addBasicBlockToLoop(NewBlocks[0], *LI);
for (unsigned i = 0, e = ExitBlocks.size(); i != e; ++i) {
BasicBlock *NewExit = cast<BasicBlock>(VMap[ExitBlocks[i]]);
// The new exit block should be in the same loop as the old one.
if (Loop *ExitBBLoop = LI->getLoopFor(ExitBlocks[i]))
ExitBBLoop->addBasicBlockToLoop(NewExit, *LI);
assert(NewExit->getTerminator()->getNumSuccessors() == 1 &&
"Exit block should have been split to have one successor!");
BasicBlock *ExitSucc = NewExit->getTerminator()->getSuccessor(0);
// If the successor of the exit block had PHI nodes, add an entry for
// NewExit.
for (BasicBlock::iterator I = ExitSucc->begin();
PHINode *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(I); ++I) {
Value *V = PN->getIncomingValueForBlock(ExitBlocks[i]);
ValueToValueMapTy::iterator It = VMap.find(V);
if (It != VMap.end()) V = It->second;
PN->addIncoming(V, NewExit);
if (LandingPadInst *LPad = NewExit->getLandingPadInst()) {
PHINode *PN = PHINode::Create(LPad->getType(), 0, "",
for (pred_iterator I = pred_begin(ExitSucc), E = pred_end(ExitSucc);
I != E; ++I) {
BasicBlock *BB = *I;
LandingPadInst *LPI = BB->getLandingPadInst();
PN->addIncoming(LPI, BB);
// Rewrite the code to refer to itself.
for (unsigned i = 0, e = NewBlocks.size(); i != e; ++i)
for (BasicBlock::iterator I = NewBlocks[i]->begin(),
E = NewBlocks[i]->end(); I != E; ++I)
RemapInstruction(I, VMap,RF_NoModuleLevelChanges|RF_IgnoreMissingEntries);
// Rewrite the original preheader to select between versions of the loop.
BranchInst *OldBR = cast<BranchInst>(loopPreheader->getTerminator());
assert(OldBR->isUnconditional() && OldBR->getSuccessor(0) == LoopBlocks[0] &&
"Preheader splitting did not work correctly!");
// Emit the new branch that selects between the two versions of this loop.
EmitPreheaderBranchOnCondition(LIC, Val, NewBlocks[0], LoopBlocks[0], OldBR,
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(OldBR, L);
redoLoop = true;
// Keep a WeakVH holding onto LIC. If the first call to RewriteLoopBody
// deletes the instruction (for example by simplifying a PHI that feeds into
// the condition that we're unswitching on), we don't rewrite the second
// iteration.
WeakVH LICHandle(LIC);
// Now we rewrite the original code to know that the condition is true and the
// new code to know that the condition is false.
RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant(L, LIC, Val, false);
// It's possible that simplifying one loop could cause the other to be
// changed to another value or a constant. If its a constant, don't simplify
// it.
if (!LoopProcessWorklist.empty() && LoopProcessWorklist.back() == NewLoop &&
LICHandle && !isa<Constant>(LICHandle))
RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant(NewLoop, LICHandle, Val, true);
/// RemoveFromWorklist - Remove all instances of I from the worklist vector
/// specified.
static void RemoveFromWorklist(Instruction *I,
std::vector<Instruction*> &Worklist) {
Worklist.erase(std::remove(Worklist.begin(), Worklist.end(), I),
/// ReplaceUsesOfWith - When we find that I really equals V, remove I from the
/// program, replacing all uses with V and update the worklist.
static void ReplaceUsesOfWith(Instruction *I, Value *V,
std::vector<Instruction*> &Worklist,
Loop *L, LPPassManager *LPM) {
DEBUG(dbgs() << "Replace with '" << *V << "': " << *I);
// Add uses to the worklist, which may be dead now.
for (unsigned i = 0, e = I->getNumOperands(); i != e; ++i)
if (Instruction *Use = dyn_cast<Instruction>(I->getOperand(i)))
// Add users to the worklist which may be simplified now.
for (User *U : I->users())
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(I, L);
RemoveFromWorklist(I, Worklist);
// RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant - We know either that the value LIC has
// the value specified by Val in the specified loop, or we know it does NOT have
// that value. Rewrite any uses of LIC or of properties correlated to it.
void LoopUnswitch::RewriteLoopBodyWithConditionConstant(Loop *L, Value *LIC,
Constant *Val,
bool IsEqual) {
assert(!isa<Constant>(LIC) && "Why are we unswitching on a constant?");
// FIXME: Support correlated properties, like:
// for (...)
// if (li1 < li2)
// ...
// if (li1 > li2)
// ...
// FOLD boolean conditions (X|LIC), (X&LIC). Fold conditional branches,
// selects, switches.
std::vector<Instruction*> Worklist;
LLVMContext &Context = Val->getContext();
// If we know that LIC == Val, or that LIC == NotVal, just replace uses of LIC
// in the loop with the appropriate one directly.
if (IsEqual || (isa<ConstantInt>(Val) &&
Val->getType()->isIntegerTy(1))) {
Value *Replacement;
if (IsEqual)
Replacement = Val;
Replacement = ConstantInt::get(Type::getInt1Ty(Val->getContext()),
for (User *U : LIC->users()) {
Instruction *UI = dyn_cast<Instruction>(U);
if (!UI || !L->contains(UI))
for (std::vector<Instruction*>::iterator UI = Worklist.begin(),
UE = Worklist.end(); UI != UE; ++UI)
(*UI)->replaceUsesOfWith(LIC, Replacement);
SimplifyCode(Worklist, L);
// Otherwise, we don't know the precise value of LIC, but we do know that it
// is certainly NOT "Val". As such, simplify any uses in the loop that we
// can. This case occurs when we unswitch switch statements.
for (User *U : LIC->users()) {
Instruction *UI = dyn_cast<Instruction>(U);
if (!UI || !L->contains(UI))
// TODO: We could do other simplifications, for example, turning
// 'icmp eq LIC, Val' -> false.
// If we know that LIC is not Val, use this info to simplify code.
SwitchInst *SI = dyn_cast<SwitchInst>(UI);
if (!SI || !isa<ConstantInt>(Val)) continue;
SwitchInst::CaseIt DeadCase = SI->findCaseValue(cast<ConstantInt>(Val));
// Default case is live for multiple values.
if (DeadCase == SI->case_default()) continue;
// Found a dead case value. Don't remove PHI nodes in the
// successor if they become single-entry, those PHI nodes may
// be in the Users list.
BasicBlock *Switch = SI->getParent();
BasicBlock *SISucc = DeadCase.getCaseSuccessor();
BasicBlock *Latch = L->getLoopLatch();
BranchesInfo.setUnswitched(SI, Val);
if (!SI->findCaseDest(SISucc)) continue; // Edge is critical.
// If the DeadCase successor dominates the loop latch, then the
// transformation isn't safe since it will delete the sole predecessor edge
// to the latch.
if (Latch && DT->dominates(SISucc, Latch))
// FIXME: This is a hack. We need to keep the successor around
// and hooked up so as to preserve the loop structure, because
// trying to update it is complicated. So instead we preserve the
// loop structure and put the block on a dead code path.
SplitEdge(Switch, SISucc, DT, LI);
// Compute the successors instead of relying on the return value
// of SplitEdge, since it may have split the switch successor
// after PHI nodes.
BasicBlock *NewSISucc = DeadCase.getCaseSuccessor();
BasicBlock *OldSISucc = *succ_begin(NewSISucc);
// Create an "unreachable" destination.
BasicBlock *Abort = BasicBlock::Create(Context, "us-unreachable",
new UnreachableInst(Context, Abort);
// Force the new case destination to branch to the "unreachable"
// block while maintaining a (dead) CFG edge to the old block.
BranchInst::Create(Abort, OldSISucc,
ConstantInt::getTrue(Context), NewSISucc);
// Release the PHI operands for this edge.
for (BasicBlock::iterator II = NewSISucc->begin();
PHINode *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(II); ++II)
// Tell the domtree about the new block. We don't fully update the
// domtree here -- instead we force it to do a full recomputation
// after the pass is complete -- but we do need to inform it of
// new blocks.
if (DT)
DT->addNewBlock(Abort, NewSISucc);
SimplifyCode(Worklist, L);
/// SimplifyCode - Okay, now that we have simplified some instructions in the
/// loop, walk over it and constant prop, dce, and fold control flow where
/// possible. Note that this is effectively a very simple loop-structure-aware
/// optimizer. During processing of this loop, L could very well be deleted, so
/// it must not be used.
/// FIXME: When the loop optimizer is more mature, separate this out to a new
/// pass.
void LoopUnswitch::SimplifyCode(std::vector<Instruction*> &Worklist, Loop *L) {
const DataLayout &DL = L->getHeader()->getModule()->getDataLayout();
while (!Worklist.empty()) {
Instruction *I = Worklist.back();
// Simple DCE.
if (isInstructionTriviallyDead(I)) {
DEBUG(dbgs() << "Remove dead instruction '" << *I);
// Add uses to the worklist, which may be dead now.
for (unsigned i = 0, e = I->getNumOperands(); i != e; ++i)
if (Instruction *Use = dyn_cast<Instruction>(I->getOperand(i)))
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(I, L);
RemoveFromWorklist(I, Worklist);
// See if instruction simplification can hack this up. This is common for
// things like "select false, X, Y" after unswitching made the condition be
// 'false'. TODO: update the domtree properly so we can pass it here.
if (Value *V = SimplifyInstruction(I, DL))
if (LI->replacementPreservesLCSSAForm(I, V)) {
ReplaceUsesOfWith(I, V, Worklist, L, LPM);
// Special case hacks that appear commonly in unswitched code.
if (BranchInst *BI = dyn_cast<BranchInst>(I)) {
if (BI->isUnconditional()) {
// If BI's parent is the only pred of the successor, fold the two blocks
// together.
BasicBlock *Pred = BI->getParent();
BasicBlock *Succ = BI->getSuccessor(0);
BasicBlock *SinglePred = Succ->getSinglePredecessor();
if (!SinglePred) continue; // Nothing to do.
assert(SinglePred == Pred && "CFG broken");
DEBUG(dbgs() << "Merging blocks: " << Pred->getName() << " <- "
<< Succ->getName() << "\n");
// Resolve any single entry PHI nodes in Succ.
while (PHINode *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(Succ->begin()))
ReplaceUsesOfWith(PN, PN->getIncomingValue(0), Worklist, L, LPM);
// If Succ has any successors with PHI nodes, update them to have
// entries coming from Pred instead of Succ.
// Move all of the successor contents from Succ to Pred.
Pred->getInstList().splice(BI, Succ->getInstList(), Succ->begin(),
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(BI, L);
RemoveFromWorklist(BI, Worklist);
// Remove Succ from the loop tree.
LPM->deleteSimpleAnalysisValue(Succ, L);