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//===- CoroFrame.cpp - Builds and manipulates coroutine frame -------------===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// This file contains classes used to discover if for a particular value
// there from sue to definition that crosses a suspend block.
// Using the information discovered we form a Coroutine Frame structure to
// contain those values. All uses of those values are replaced with appropriate
// GEP + load from the coroutine frame. At the point of the definition we spill
// the value into the coroutine frame.
#include "CoroInternal.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/BitVector.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallString.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/PtrUseVisitor.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/StackLifetime.h"
#include "llvm/Config/llvm-config.h"
#include "llvm/IR/CFG.h"
#include "llvm/IR/DIBuilder.h"
#include "llvm/IR/Dominators.h"
#include "llvm/IR/IRBuilder.h"
#include "llvm/IR/InstIterator.h"
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"
#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"
#include "llvm/Support/MathExtras.h"
#include "llvm/Support/OptimizedStructLayout.h"
#include "llvm/Support/circular_raw_ostream.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/BasicBlockUtils.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/Local.h"
#include "llvm/Transforms/Utils/PromoteMemToReg.h"
#include <algorithm>
using namespace llvm;
// The "coro-suspend-crossing" flag is very noisy. There is another debug type,
// "coro-frame", which results in leaner debug spew.
#define DEBUG_TYPE "coro-suspend-crossing"
static cl::opt<bool> EnableReuseStorageInFrame(
"reuse-storage-in-coroutine-frame", cl::Hidden,
"Enable the optimization which would reuse the storage in the coroutine \
frame for allocas whose liferanges are not overlapped, for testing purposes"),
enum { SmallVectorThreshold = 32 };
// Provides two way mapping between the blocks and numbers.
namespace {
class BlockToIndexMapping {
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, SmallVectorThreshold> V;
size_t size() const { return V.size(); }
BlockToIndexMapping(Function &F) {
for (BasicBlock &BB : F)
size_t blockToIndex(BasicBlock *BB) const {
auto *I = llvm::lower_bound(V, BB);
assert(I != V.end() && *I == BB && "BasicBlockNumberng: Unknown block");
return I - V.begin();
BasicBlock *indexToBlock(unsigned Index) const { return V[Index]; }
} // end anonymous namespace
// The SuspendCrossingInfo maintains data that allows to answer a question
// whether given two BasicBlocks A and B there is a path from A to B that
// passes through a suspend point.
// For every basic block 'i' it maintains a BlockData that consists of:
// Consumes: a bit vector which contains a set of indices of blocks that can
// reach block 'i'
// Kills: a bit vector which contains a set of indices of blocks that can
// reach block 'i', but one of the path will cross a suspend point
// Suspend: a boolean indicating whether block 'i' contains a suspend point.
// End: a boolean indicating whether block 'i' contains a coro.end intrinsic.
namespace {
struct SuspendCrossingInfo {
BlockToIndexMapping Mapping;
struct BlockData {
BitVector Consumes;
BitVector Kills;
bool Suspend = false;
bool End = false;
SmallVector<BlockData, SmallVectorThreshold> Block;
iterator_range<succ_iterator> successors(BlockData const &BD) const {
BasicBlock *BB = Mapping.indexToBlock(&BD - &Block[0]);
return llvm::successors(BB);
BlockData &getBlockData(BasicBlock *BB) {
return Block[Mapping.blockToIndex(BB)];
void dump() const;
void dump(StringRef Label, BitVector const &BV) const;
SuspendCrossingInfo(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape);
bool hasPathCrossingSuspendPoint(BasicBlock *DefBB, BasicBlock *UseBB) const {
size_t const DefIndex = Mapping.blockToIndex(DefBB);
size_t const UseIndex = Mapping.blockToIndex(UseBB);
bool const Result = Block[UseIndex].Kills[DefIndex];
LLVM_DEBUG(dbgs() << UseBB->getName() << " => " << DefBB->getName()
<< " answer is " << Result << "\n");
return Result;
bool isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(BasicBlock *DefBB, User *U) const {
auto *I = cast<Instruction>(U);
// We rewrote PHINodes, so that only the ones with exactly one incoming
// value need to be analyzed.
if (auto *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(I))
if (PN->getNumIncomingValues() > 1)
return false;
BasicBlock *UseBB = I->getParent();
// As a special case, treat uses by an llvm.coro.suspend.retcon or an
// llvm.coro.suspend.async as if they were uses in the suspend's single
// predecessor: the uses conceptually occur before the suspend.
if (isa<CoroSuspendRetconInst>(I) || isa<CoroSuspendAsyncInst>(I)) {
UseBB = UseBB->getSinglePredecessor();
assert(UseBB && "should have split coro.suspend into its own block");
return hasPathCrossingSuspendPoint(DefBB, UseBB);
bool isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(Argument &A, User *U) const {
return isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(&A.getParent()->getEntryBlock(), U);
bool isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(Instruction &I, User *U) const {
auto *DefBB = I.getParent();
// As a special case, treat values produced by an llvm.coro.suspend.*
// as if they were defined in the single successor: the uses
// conceptually occur after the suspend.
if (isa<AnyCoroSuspendInst>(I)) {
DefBB = DefBB->getSingleSuccessor();
assert(DefBB && "should have split coro.suspend into its own block");
return isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(DefBB, U);
} // end anonymous namespace
#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(LLVM_ENABLE_DUMP)
LLVM_DUMP_METHOD void SuspendCrossingInfo::dump(StringRef Label,
BitVector const &BV) const {
dbgs() << Label << ":";
for (size_t I = 0, N = BV.size(); I < N; ++I)
if (BV[I])
dbgs() << " " << Mapping.indexToBlock(I)->getName();
dbgs() << "\n";
LLVM_DUMP_METHOD void SuspendCrossingInfo::dump() const {
for (size_t I = 0, N = Block.size(); I < N; ++I) {
BasicBlock *const B = Mapping.indexToBlock(I);
dbgs() << B->getName() << ":\n";
dump(" Consumes", Block[I].Consumes);
dump(" Kills", Block[I].Kills);
dbgs() << "\n";
SuspendCrossingInfo::SuspendCrossingInfo(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape)
: Mapping(F) {
const size_t N = Mapping.size();
// Initialize every block so that it consumes itself
for (size_t I = 0; I < N; ++I) {
auto &B = Block[I];
// Mark all CoroEnd Blocks. We do not propagate Kills beyond coro.ends as
// the code beyond coro.end is reachable during initial invocation of the
// coroutine.
for (auto *CE : Shape.CoroEnds)
getBlockData(CE->getParent()).End = true;
// Mark all suspend blocks and indicate that they kill everything they
// consume. Note, that crossing also requires a spill, as any code
// between and coro.suspend may resume the coroutine and all of the
// state needs to be saved by that time.
auto markSuspendBlock = [&](IntrinsicInst *BarrierInst) {
BasicBlock *SuspendBlock = BarrierInst->getParent();
auto &B = getBlockData(SuspendBlock);
B.Suspend = true;
B.Kills |= B.Consumes;
for (auto *CSI : Shape.CoroSuspends) {
if (auto *Save = CSI->getCoroSave())
// Iterate propagating consumes and kills until they stop changing.
int Iteration = 0;
bool Changed;
do {
LLVM_DEBUG(dbgs() << "iteration " << ++Iteration);
LLVM_DEBUG(dbgs() << "==============\n");
Changed = false;
for (size_t I = 0; I < N; ++I) {
auto &B = Block[I];
for (BasicBlock *SI : successors(B)) {
auto SuccNo = Mapping.blockToIndex(SI);
// Saved Consumes and Kills bitsets so that it is easy to see
// if anything changed after propagation.
auto &S = Block[SuccNo];
auto SavedConsumes = S.Consumes;
auto SavedKills = S.Kills;
// Propagate Kills and Consumes from block B into its successor S.
S.Consumes |= B.Consumes;
S.Kills |= B.Kills;
// If block B is a suspend block, it should propagate kills into the
// its successor for every block B consumes.
if (B.Suspend) {
S.Kills |= B.Consumes;
if (S.Suspend) {
// If block S is a suspend block, it should kill all of the blocks it
// consumes.
S.Kills |= S.Consumes;
} else if (S.End) {
// If block S is an end block, it should not propagate kills as the
// blocks following coro.end() are reached during initial invocation
// of the coroutine while all the data are still available on the
// stack or in the registers.
} else {
// This is reached when S block it not Suspend nor coro.end and it
// need to make sure that it is not in the kill set.
// See if anything changed.
Changed |= (S.Kills != SavedKills) || (S.Consumes != SavedConsumes);
if (S.Kills != SavedKills) {
LLVM_DEBUG(dbgs() << "\nblock " << I << " follower " << SI->getName()
<< "\n");
LLVM_DEBUG(dump("S.Kills", S.Kills));
LLVM_DEBUG(dump("SavedKills", SavedKills));
if (S.Consumes != SavedConsumes) {
LLVM_DEBUG(dbgs() << "\nblock " << I << " follower " << SI << "\n");
LLVM_DEBUG(dump("S.Consume", S.Consumes));
LLVM_DEBUG(dump("SavedCons", SavedConsumes));
} while (Changed);
#undef DEBUG_TYPE // "coro-suspend-crossing"
#define DEBUG_TYPE "coro-frame"
namespace {
class FrameTypeBuilder;
// Mapping from the to-be-spilled value to all the users that need reload.
using SpillInfo = SmallMapVector<Value *, SmallVector<Instruction *, 2>, 8>;
struct AllocaInfo {
AllocaInst *Alloca;
DenseMap<Instruction *, llvm::Optional<APInt>> Aliases;
bool MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin;
AllocaInfo(AllocaInst *Alloca,
DenseMap<Instruction *, llvm::Optional<APInt>> Aliases,
bool MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin)
: Alloca(Alloca), Aliases(std::move(Aliases)),
MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin(MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin) {}
struct FrameDataInfo {
// All the values (that are not allocas) that needs to be spilled to the
// frame.
SpillInfo Spills;
// Allocas contains all values defined as allocas that need to live in the
// frame.
SmallVector<AllocaInfo, 8> Allocas;
SmallVector<Value *, 8> getAllDefs() const {
SmallVector<Value *, 8> Defs;
for (const auto &P : Spills)
for (const auto &A : Allocas)
return Defs;
uint32_t getFieldIndex(Value *V) const {
auto Itr = FieldIndexMap.find(V);
assert(Itr != FieldIndexMap.end() &&
"Value does not have a frame field index");
return Itr->second;
void setFieldIndex(Value *V, uint32_t Index) {
assert((LayoutIndexUpdateStarted || FieldIndexMap.count(V) == 0) &&
"Cannot set the index for the same field twice.");
FieldIndexMap[V] = Index;
// Remap the index of every field in the frame, using the final layout index.
void updateLayoutIndex(FrameTypeBuilder &B);
// LayoutIndexUpdateStarted is used to avoid updating the index of any field
// twice by mistake.
bool LayoutIndexUpdateStarted = false;
// Map from values to their slot indexes on the frame. They will be first set
// with their original insertion field index. After the frame is built, their
// indexes will be updated into the final layout index.
DenseMap<Value *, uint32_t> FieldIndexMap;
} // namespace
#ifndef NDEBUG
static void dumpSpills(StringRef Title, const SpillInfo &Spills) {
dbgs() << "------------- " << Title << "--------------\n";
for (const auto &E : Spills) {
dbgs() << " user: ";
for (auto *I : E.second)
static void dumpAllocas(const SmallVectorImpl<AllocaInfo> &Allocas) {
dbgs() << "------------- Allocas --------------\n";
for (const auto &A : Allocas) {
namespace {
using FieldIDType = size_t;
// We cannot rely solely on natural alignment of a type when building a
// coroutine frame and if the alignment specified on the Alloca instruction
// differs from the natural alignment of the alloca type we will need to insert
// padding.
class FrameTypeBuilder {
struct Field {
uint64_t Size;
uint64_t Offset;
Type *Ty;
FieldIDType LayoutFieldIndex;
Align Alignment;
Align TyAlignment;
const DataLayout &DL;
LLVMContext &Context;
uint64_t StructSize = 0;
Align StructAlign;
bool IsFinished = false;
SmallVector<Field, 8> Fields;
DenseMap<Value*, unsigned> FieldIndexByKey;
FrameTypeBuilder(LLVMContext &Context, DataLayout const &DL)
: DL(DL), Context(Context) {}
/// Add a field to this structure for the storage of an `alloca`
/// instruction.
LLVM_NODISCARD FieldIDType addFieldForAlloca(AllocaInst *AI,
bool IsHeader = false) {
Type *Ty = AI->getAllocatedType();
// Make an array type if this is a static array allocation.
if (AI->isArrayAllocation()) {
if (auto *CI = dyn_cast<ConstantInt>(AI->getArraySize()))
Ty = ArrayType::get(Ty, CI->getValue().getZExtValue());
report_fatal_error("Coroutines cannot handle non static allocas yet");
return addField(Ty, AI->getAlign(), IsHeader);
/// We want to put the allocas whose lifetime-ranges are not overlapped
/// into one slot of coroutine frame.
/// Consider the example at:
/// cppcoro::task<void> alternative_paths(bool cond) {
/// if (cond) {
/// big_structure a;
/// process(a);
/// co_await something();
/// } else {
/// big_structure b;
/// process2(b);
/// co_await something();
/// }
/// }
/// We want to put variable a and variable b in the same slot to
/// reduce the size of coroutine frame.
/// This function use StackLifetime algorithm to partition the AllocaInsts in
/// Spills to non-overlapped sets in order to put Alloca in the same
/// non-overlapped set into the same slot in the Coroutine Frame. Then add
/// field for the allocas in the same non-overlapped set by using the largest
/// type as the field type.
/// Side Effects: Because We sort the allocas, the order of allocas in the
/// frame may be different with the order in the source code.
void addFieldForAllocas(const Function &F, FrameDataInfo &FrameData,
coro::Shape &Shape);
/// Add a field to this structure.
LLVM_NODISCARD FieldIDType addField(Type *Ty, MaybeAlign FieldAlignment,
bool IsHeader = false) {
assert(!IsFinished && "adding fields to a finished builder");
assert(Ty && "must provide a type for a field");
// The field size is always the alloc size of the type.
uint64_t FieldSize = DL.getTypeAllocSize(Ty);
// The field alignment might not be the type alignment, but we need
// to remember the type alignment anyway to build the type.
Align TyAlignment = DL.getABITypeAlign(Ty);
if (!FieldAlignment) FieldAlignment = TyAlignment;
// Lay out header fields immediately.
uint64_t Offset;
if (IsHeader) {
Offset = alignTo(StructSize, FieldAlignment);
StructSize = Offset + FieldSize;
// Everything else has a flexible offset.
} else {
Offset = OptimizedStructLayoutField::FlexibleOffset;
Fields.push_back({FieldSize, Offset, Ty, 0, *FieldAlignment, TyAlignment});
return Fields.size() - 1;
/// Finish the layout and set the body on the given type.
void finish(StructType *Ty);
uint64_t getStructSize() const {
assert(IsFinished && "not yet finished!");
return StructSize;
Align getStructAlign() const {
assert(IsFinished && "not yet finished!");
return StructAlign;
FieldIDType getLayoutFieldIndex(FieldIDType Id) const {
assert(IsFinished && "not yet finished!");
return Fields[Id].LayoutFieldIndex;
} // namespace
void FrameDataInfo::updateLayoutIndex(FrameTypeBuilder &B) {
auto Updater = [&](Value *I) {
setFieldIndex(I, B.getLayoutFieldIndex(getFieldIndex(I)));
LayoutIndexUpdateStarted = true;
for (auto &S : Spills)
for (const auto &A : Allocas)
LayoutIndexUpdateStarted = false;
void FrameTypeBuilder::addFieldForAllocas(const Function &F,
FrameDataInfo &FrameData,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
using AllocaSetType = SmallVector<AllocaInst *, 4>;
SmallVector<AllocaSetType, 4> NonOverlapedAllocas;
// We need to add field for allocas at the end of this function. However, this
// function has multiple exits, so we use this helper to avoid redundant code.
struct RTTIHelper {
std::function<void()> func;
RTTIHelper(std::function<void()> &&func) : func(func) {}
~RTTIHelper() { func(); }
} Helper([&]() {
for (auto AllocaList : NonOverlapedAllocas) {
auto *LargestAI = *AllocaList.begin();
FieldIDType Id = addFieldForAlloca(LargestAI);
for (auto *Alloca : AllocaList)
FrameData.setFieldIndex(Alloca, Id);
if (!Shape.ReuseFrameSlot && !EnableReuseStorageInFrame) {
for (const auto &A : FrameData.Allocas) {
AllocaInst *Alloca = A.Alloca;
NonOverlapedAllocas.emplace_back(AllocaSetType(1, Alloca));
// Because there are pathes from the lifetime.start to coro.end
// for each alloca, the liferanges for every alloca is overlaped
// in the blocks who contain coro.end and the successor blocks.
// So we choose to skip there blocks when we calculates the liferange
// for each alloca. It should be reasonable since there shouldn't be uses
// in these blocks and the coroutine frame shouldn't be used outside the
// coroutine body.
// Note that the user of coro.suspend may not be SwitchInst. However, this
// case seems too complex to handle. And it is harmless to skip these
// patterns since it just prevend putting the allocas to live in the same
// slot.
DenseMap<SwitchInst *, BasicBlock *> DefaultSuspendDest;
for (auto CoroSuspendInst : Shape.CoroSuspends) {
for (auto U : CoroSuspendInst->users()) {
if (auto *ConstSWI = dyn_cast<SwitchInst>(U)) {
auto *SWI = const_cast<SwitchInst *>(ConstSWI);
DefaultSuspendDest[SWI] = SWI->getDefaultDest();
auto ExtractAllocas = [&]() {
AllocaSetType Allocas;
for (const auto &A : FrameData.Allocas)
return Allocas;
StackLifetime StackLifetimeAnalyzer(F, ExtractAllocas(),
auto IsAllocaInferenre = [&](const AllocaInst *AI1, const AllocaInst *AI2) {
return StackLifetimeAnalyzer.getLiveRange(AI1).overlaps(
auto GetAllocaSize = [&](const AllocaInfo &A) {
Optional<TypeSize> RetSize = A.Alloca->getAllocationSizeInBits(DL);
assert(RetSize && "Variable Length Arrays (VLA) are not supported.\n");
assert(!RetSize->isScalable() && "Scalable vectors are not yet supported");
return RetSize->getFixedSize();
// Put larger allocas in the front. So the larger allocas have higher
// priority to merge, which can save more space potentially. Also each
// AllocaSet would be ordered. So we can get the largest Alloca in one
// AllocaSet easily.
sort(FrameData.Allocas, [&](const auto &Iter1, const auto &Iter2) {
return GetAllocaSize(Iter1) > GetAllocaSize(Iter2);
for (const auto &A : FrameData.Allocas) {
AllocaInst *Alloca = A.Alloca;
bool Merged = false;
// Try to find if the Alloca is not inferenced with any existing
// NonOverlappedAllocaSet. If it is true, insert the alloca to that
// NonOverlappedAllocaSet.
for (auto &AllocaSet : NonOverlapedAllocas) {
assert(!AllocaSet.empty() && "Processing Alloca Set is not empty.\n");
bool NoInference = none_of(AllocaSet, [&](auto Iter) {
return IsAllocaInferenre(Alloca, Iter);
// If the alignment of A is multiple of the alignment of B, the address
// of A should satisfy the requirement for aligning for B.
// There may be other more fine-grained strategies to handle the alignment
// infomation during the merging process. But it seems hard to handle
// these strategies and benefit little.
bool Alignable = [&]() -> bool {
auto *LargestAlloca = *AllocaSet.begin();
return LargestAlloca->getAlign().value() % Alloca->getAlign().value() ==
bool CouldMerge = NoInference && Alignable;
if (!CouldMerge)
Merged = true;
if (!Merged) {
NonOverlapedAllocas.emplace_back(AllocaSetType(1, Alloca));
// Recover the default target destination for each Switch statement
// reserved.
for (auto SwitchAndDefaultDest : DefaultSuspendDest) {
SwitchInst *SWI = SwitchAndDefaultDest.first;
BasicBlock *DestBB = SwitchAndDefaultDest.second;
// This Debug Info could tell us which allocas are merged into one slot.
LLVM_DEBUG(for (auto &AllocaSet
: NonOverlapedAllocas) {
if (AllocaSet.size() > 1) {
dbgs() << "In Function:" << F.getName() << "\n";
dbgs() << "Find Union Set "
<< "\n";
dbgs() << "\tAllocas are \n";
for (auto Alloca : AllocaSet)
dbgs() << "\t\t" << *Alloca << "\n";
void FrameTypeBuilder::finish(StructType *Ty) {
assert(!IsFinished && "already finished!");
// Prepare the optimal-layout field array.
// The Id in the layout field is a pointer to our Field for it.
SmallVector<OptimizedStructLayoutField, 8> LayoutFields;
for (auto &Field : Fields) {
LayoutFields.emplace_back(&Field, Field.Size, Field.Alignment,
// Perform layout.
auto SizeAndAlign = performOptimizedStructLayout(LayoutFields);
StructSize = SizeAndAlign.first;
StructAlign = SizeAndAlign.second;
auto getField = [](const OptimizedStructLayoutField &LayoutField) -> Field & {
return *static_cast<Field *>(const_cast<void*>(LayoutField.Id));
// We need to produce a packed struct type if there's a field whose
// assigned offset isn't a multiple of its natural type alignment.
bool Packed = [&] {
for (auto &LayoutField : LayoutFields) {
auto &F = getField(LayoutField);
if (!isAligned(F.TyAlignment, LayoutField.Offset))
return true;
return false;
// Build the struct body.
SmallVector<Type*, 16> FieldTypes;
FieldTypes.reserve(LayoutFields.size() * 3 / 2);
uint64_t LastOffset = 0;
for (auto &LayoutField : LayoutFields) {
auto &F = getField(LayoutField);
auto Offset = LayoutField.Offset;
// Add a padding field if there's a padding gap and we're either
// building a packed struct or the padding gap is more than we'd
// get from aligning to the field type's natural alignment.
assert(Offset >= LastOffset);
if (Offset != LastOffset) {
if (Packed || alignTo(LastOffset, F.TyAlignment) != Offset)
Offset - LastOffset));
F.Offset = Offset;
F.LayoutFieldIndex = FieldTypes.size();
LastOffset = Offset + F.Size;
Ty->setBody(FieldTypes, Packed);
#ifndef NDEBUG
// Check that the IR layout matches the offsets we expect.
auto Layout = DL.getStructLayout(Ty);
for (auto &F : Fields) {
assert(Ty->getElementType(F.LayoutFieldIndex) == F.Ty);
assert(Layout->getElementOffset(F.LayoutFieldIndex) == F.Offset);
IsFinished = true;
// Build a struct that will keep state for an active coroutine.
// struct f.frame {
// ResumeFnTy ResumeFnAddr;
// ResumeFnTy DestroyFnAddr;
// int ResumeIndex;
// ... promise (if present) ...
// ... spills ...
// };
static StructType *buildFrameType(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape,
FrameDataInfo &FrameData) {
LLVMContext &C = F.getContext();
const DataLayout &DL = F.getParent()->getDataLayout();
StructType *FrameTy = [&] {
SmallString<32> Name(F.getName());
return StructType::create(C, Name);
FrameTypeBuilder B(C, DL);
AllocaInst *PromiseAlloca = Shape.getPromiseAlloca();
Optional<FieldIDType> SwitchIndexFieldId;
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Switch) {
auto *FramePtrTy = FrameTy->getPointerTo();
auto *FnTy = FunctionType::get(Type::getVoidTy(C), FramePtrTy,
auto *FnPtrTy = FnTy->getPointerTo();
// Add header fields for the resume and destroy functions.
// We can rely on these being perfectly packed.
(void)B.addField(FnPtrTy, None, /*header*/ true);
(void)B.addField(FnPtrTy, None, /*header*/ true);
// PromiseAlloca field needs to be explicitly added here because it's
// a header field with a fixed offset based on its alignment. Hence it
// needs special handling and cannot be added to FrameData.Allocas.
if (PromiseAlloca)
PromiseAlloca, B.addFieldForAlloca(PromiseAlloca, /*header*/ true));
// Add a field to store the suspend index. This doesn't need to
// be in the header.
unsigned IndexBits = std::max(1U, Log2_64_Ceil(Shape.CoroSuspends.size()));
Type *IndexType = Type::getIntNTy(C, IndexBits);
SwitchIndexFieldId = B.addField(IndexType, None);
} else {
assert(PromiseAlloca == nullptr && "lowering doesn't support promises");
// Because multiple allocas may own the same field slot,
// we add allocas to field here.
B.addFieldForAllocas(F, FrameData, Shape);
// Add PromiseAlloca to Allocas list so that
// 1. updateLayoutIndex could update its index after
// `performOptimizedStructLayout`
// 2. it is processed in insertSpills.
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Switch && PromiseAlloca)
// We assume that the promise alloca won't be modified before
// CoroBegin and no alias will be create before CoroBegin.
PromiseAlloca, DenseMap<Instruction *, llvm::Optional<APInt>>{}, false);
// Create an entry for every spilled value.
for (auto &S : FrameData.Spills) {
FieldIDType Id = B.addField(S.first->getType(), None);
FrameData.setFieldIndex(S.first, Id);
Shape.FrameAlign = B.getStructAlign();
Shape.FrameSize = B.getStructSize();
switch (Shape.ABI) {
case coro::ABI::Switch:
// In the switch ABI, remember the switch-index field.
Shape.SwitchLowering.IndexField =
// Also round the frame size up to a multiple of its alignment, as is
// generally expected in C/C++.
Shape.FrameSize = alignTo(Shape.FrameSize, Shape.FrameAlign);
// In the retcon ABI, remember whether the frame is inline in the storage.
case coro::ABI::Retcon:
case coro::ABI::RetconOnce: {
auto Id = Shape.getRetconCoroId();
= (B.getStructSize() <= Id->getStorageSize() &&
B.getStructAlign() <= Id->getStorageAlignment());
case coro::ABI::Async: {
Shape.AsyncLowering.FrameOffset =
alignTo(Shape.AsyncLowering.ContextHeaderSize, Shape.FrameAlign);
// Also make the final context size a multiple of the context alignment to
// make allocation easier for allocators.
Shape.AsyncLowering.ContextSize =
alignTo(Shape.AsyncLowering.FrameOffset + Shape.FrameSize,
if (Shape.AsyncLowering.getContextAlignment() < Shape.FrameAlign) {
"The alignment requirment of frame variables cannot be higher than "
"the alignment of the async function context");
return FrameTy;
// We use a pointer use visitor to track how an alloca is being used.
// The goal is to be able to answer the following three questions:
// 1. Should this alloca be allocated on the frame instead.
// 2. Could the content of the alloca be modified prior to CoroBegn, which would
// require copying the data from alloca to the frame after CoroBegin.
// 3. Is there any alias created for this alloca prior to CoroBegin, but used
// after CoroBegin. In that case, we will need to recreate the alias after
// CoroBegin based off the frame. To answer question 1, we track two things:
// a. List of all BasicBlocks that use this alloca or any of the aliases of
// the alloca. In the end, we check if there exists any two basic blocks that
// cross suspension points. If so, this alloca must be put on the frame. b.
// Whether the alloca or any alias of the alloca is escaped at some point,
// either by storing the address somewhere, or the address is used in a
// function call that might capture. If it's ever escaped, this alloca must be
// put on the frame conservatively.
// To answer quetion 2, we track through the variable MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin.
// Whenever a potential write happens, either through a store instruction, a
// function call or any of the memory intrinsics, we check whether this
// instruction is prior to CoroBegin. To answer question 3, we track the offsets
// of all aliases created for the alloca prior to CoroBegin but used after
// CoroBegin. llvm::Optional is used to be able to represent the case when the
// offset is unknown (e.g. when you have a PHINode that takes in different
// offset values). We cannot handle unknown offsets and will assert. This is the
// potential issue left out. An ideal solution would likely require a
// significant redesign.
namespace {
struct AllocaUseVisitor : PtrUseVisitor<AllocaUseVisitor> {
using Base = PtrUseVisitor<AllocaUseVisitor>;
AllocaUseVisitor(const DataLayout &DL, const DominatorTree &DT,
const CoroBeginInst &CB, const SuspendCrossingInfo &Checker)
: PtrUseVisitor(DL), DT(DT), CoroBegin(CB), Checker(Checker) {}
void visit(Instruction &I) {
// If the pointer is escaped prior to CoroBegin, we have to assume it would
// be written into before CoroBegin as well.
if (PI.isEscaped() && !DT.dominates(&CoroBegin, PI.getEscapingInst())) {
MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin = true;
// We need to provide this overload as PtrUseVisitor uses a pointer based
// visiting function.
void visit(Instruction *I) { return visit(*I); }
void visitPHINode(PHINode &I) {
void visitSelectInst(SelectInst &I) {
void visitStoreInst(StoreInst &SI) {
// Regardless whether the alias of the alloca is the value operand or the
// pointer operand, we need to assume the alloca is been written.
if (SI.getValueOperand() != U->get())
// We are storing the pointer into a memory location, potentially escaping.
// As an optimization, we try to detect simple cases where it doesn't
// actually escape, for example:
// %ptr = alloca ..
// %addr = alloca ..
// store %ptr, %addr
// %x = load %addr
// ..
// If %addr is only used by loading from it, we could simply treat %x as
// another alias of %ptr, and not considering %ptr being escaped.
auto IsSimpleStoreThenLoad = [&]() {
auto *AI = dyn_cast<AllocaInst>(SI.getPointerOperand());
// If the memory location we are storing to is not an alloca, it
// could be an alias of some other memory locations, which is difficult
// to analyze.
if (!AI)
return false;
// StoreAliases contains aliases of the memory location stored into.
SmallVector<Instruction *, 4> StoreAliases = {AI};
while (!StoreAliases.empty()) {
Instruction *I = StoreAliases.pop_back_val();
for (User *U : I->users()) {
// If we are loading from the memory location, we are creating an
// alias of the original pointer.
if (auto *LI = dyn_cast<LoadInst>(U)) {
// If we are overriding the memory location, the pointer certainly
// won't escape.
if (auto *S = dyn_cast<StoreInst>(U))
if (S->getPointerOperand() == I)
if (auto *II = dyn_cast<IntrinsicInst>(U))
if (II->isLifetimeStartOrEnd())
// BitCastInst creats aliases of the memory location being stored
// into.
if (auto *BI = dyn_cast<BitCastInst>(U)) {
return false;
return true;
if (!IsSimpleStoreThenLoad())
// All mem intrinsics modify the data.
void visitMemIntrinsic(MemIntrinsic &MI) { handleMayWrite(MI); }
void visitBitCastInst(BitCastInst &BC) {
void visitAddrSpaceCastInst(AddrSpaceCastInst &ASC) {
void visitGetElementPtrInst(GetElementPtrInst &GEPI) {
// The base visitor will adjust Offset accordingly.
void visitIntrinsicInst(IntrinsicInst &II) {
if (II.getIntrinsicID() != Intrinsic::lifetime_start)
return Base::visitIntrinsicInst(II);
void visitCallBase(CallBase &CB) {
for (unsigned Op = 0, OpCount = CB.getNumArgOperands(); Op < OpCount; ++Op)
if (U->get() == CB.getArgOperand(Op) && !CB.doesNotCapture(Op))
bool getShouldLiveOnFrame() const {
if (!ShouldLiveOnFrame)
ShouldLiveOnFrame = computeShouldLiveOnFrame();
return ShouldLiveOnFrame.getValue();
bool getMayWriteBeforeCoroBegin() const { return MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin; }
DenseMap<Instruction *, llvm::Optional<APInt>> getAliasesCopy() const {
assert(getShouldLiveOnFrame() && "This method should only be called if the "
"alloca needs to live on the frame.");
for (const auto &P : AliasOffetMap)
if (!P.second)
report_fatal_error("Unable to handle an alias with unknown offset "
"created before CoroBegin.");
return AliasOffetMap;
const DominatorTree &DT;
const CoroBeginInst &CoroBegin;
const SuspendCrossingInfo &Checker;
// All alias to the original AllocaInst, created before CoroBegin and used
// after CoroBegin. Each entry contains the instruction and the offset in the
// original Alloca. They need to be recreated after CoroBegin off the frame.
DenseMap<Instruction *, llvm::Optional<APInt>> AliasOffetMap{};
SmallPtrSet<Instruction *, 4> Users{};
SmallPtrSet<IntrinsicInst *, 2> LifetimeStarts{};
bool MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin{false};
mutable llvm::Optional<bool> ShouldLiveOnFrame{};
bool computeShouldLiveOnFrame() const {
// If lifetime information is available, we check it first since it's
// more precise. We look at every pair of lifetime.start intrinsic and
// every basic block that uses the pointer to see if they cross suspension
// points. The uses cover both direct uses as well as indirect uses.
if (!LifetimeStarts.empty()) {
for (auto *I : Users)
for (auto *S : LifetimeStarts)
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(*S, I))
return true;
return false;
// FIXME: Ideally the isEscaped check should come at the beginning.
// However there are a few loose ends that need to be fixed first before
// we can do that. We need to make sure we are not over-conservative, so
// that the data accessed in-between await_suspend and symmetric transfer
// is always put on the stack, and also data accessed after coro.end is
// always put on the stack (esp the return object). To fix that, we need
// to:
// 1) Potentially treat sret as nocapture in calls
// 2) Special handle the return object and put it on the stack
// 3) Utilize lifetime.end intrinsic
if (PI.isEscaped())
return true;
for (auto *U1 : Users)
for (auto *U2 : Users)
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(*U1, U2))
return true;
return false;
void handleMayWrite(const Instruction &I) {
if (!DT.dominates(&CoroBegin, &I))
MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin = true;
bool usedAfterCoroBegin(Instruction &I) {
for (auto &U : I.uses())
if (DT.dominates(&CoroBegin, U))
return true;
return false;
void handleAlias(Instruction &I) {
// We track all aliases created prior to CoroBegin but used after.
// These aliases may need to be recreated after CoroBegin if the alloca
// need to live on the frame.
if (DT.dominates(&CoroBegin, &I) || !usedAfterCoroBegin(I))
if (!IsOffsetKnown) {
} else {
auto Itr = AliasOffetMap.find(&I);
if (Itr == AliasOffetMap.end()) {
AliasOffetMap[&I] = Offset;
} else if (Itr->second.hasValue() && Itr->second.getValue() != Offset) {
// If we have seen two different possible values for this alias, we set
// it to empty.
} // namespace
// We need to make room to insert a spill after initial PHIs, but before
// catchswitch instruction. Placing it before violates the requirement that
// catchswitch, like all other EHPads must be the first nonPHI in a block.
// Split away catchswitch into a separate block and insert in its place:
// cleanuppad <InsertPt> cleanupret.
// cleanupret instruction will act as an insert point for the spill.
static Instruction *splitBeforeCatchSwitch(CatchSwitchInst *CatchSwitch) {
BasicBlock *CurrentBlock = CatchSwitch->getParent();
BasicBlock *NewBlock = CurrentBlock->splitBasicBlock(CatchSwitch);
auto *CleanupPad =
CleanupPadInst::Create(CatchSwitch->getParentPad(), {}, "", CurrentBlock);
auto *CleanupRet =
CleanupReturnInst::Create(CleanupPad, NewBlock, CurrentBlock);
return CleanupRet;
// Replace all alloca and SSA values that are accessed across suspend points
// with GetElementPointer from coroutine frame + loads and stores. Create an
// AllocaSpillBB that will become the new entry block for the resume parts of
// the coroutine:
// %hdl = coro.begin(...)
// whatever
// becomes:
// %hdl = coro.begin(...)
// %FramePtr = bitcast i8* hdl to %f.frame*
// br label %AllocaSpillBB
// AllocaSpillBB:
// ; geps corresponding to allocas that were moved to coroutine frame
// br label PostSpill
// PostSpill:
// whatever
static Instruction *insertSpills(const FrameDataInfo &FrameData,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
auto *CB = Shape.CoroBegin;
LLVMContext &C = CB->getContext();
IRBuilder<> Builder(CB->getNextNode());
StructType *FrameTy = Shape.FrameTy;
PointerType *FramePtrTy = FrameTy->getPointerTo();
auto *FramePtr =
cast<Instruction>(Builder.CreateBitCast(CB, FramePtrTy, "FramePtr"));
DominatorTree DT(*CB->getFunction());
SmallDenseMap<llvm::Value *, llvm::AllocaInst *, 4> DbgPtrAllocaCache;
// Create a GEP with the given index into the coroutine frame for the original
// value Orig. Appends an extra 0 index for array-allocas, preserving the
// original type.
auto GetFramePointer = [&](Value *Orig) -> Value * {
FieldIDType Index = FrameData.getFieldIndex(Orig);
SmallVector<Value *, 3> Indices = {
ConstantInt::get(Type::getInt32Ty(C), 0),
ConstantInt::get(Type::getInt32Ty(C), Index),
if (auto *AI = dyn_cast<AllocaInst>(Orig)) {
if (auto *CI = dyn_cast<ConstantInt>(AI->getArraySize())) {
auto Count = CI->getValue().getZExtValue();
if (Count > 1) {
Indices.push_back(ConstantInt::get(Type::getInt32Ty(C), 0));
} else {
report_fatal_error("Coroutines cannot handle non static allocas yet");
auto GEP = cast<GetElementPtrInst>(
Builder.CreateInBoundsGEP(FrameTy, FramePtr, Indices));
if (isa<AllocaInst>(Orig)) {
// If the type of GEP is not equal to the type of AllocaInst, it implies
// that the AllocaInst may be reused in the Frame slot of other
// AllocaInst. So We cast GEP to the AllocaInst here to re-use
// the Frame storage.
// Note: If we change the strategy dealing with alignment, we need to refine
// this casting.
if (GEP->getResultElementType() != Orig->getType())
return Builder.CreateBitCast(GEP, Orig->getType(),
Orig->getName() + Twine(".cast"));
return GEP;
for (auto const &E : FrameData.Spills) {
Value *Def = E.first;
// Create a store instruction storing the value into the
// coroutine frame.
Instruction *InsertPt = nullptr;
if (auto *Arg = dyn_cast<Argument>(Def)) {
// For arguments, we will place the store instruction right after
// the coroutine frame pointer instruction, i.e. bitcast of
// coro.begin from i8* to %f.frame*.
InsertPt = FramePtr->getNextNode();
// If we're spilling an Argument, make sure we clear 'nocapture'
// from the coroutine function.
Arg->getParent()->removeParamAttr(Arg->getArgNo(), Attribute::NoCapture);
} else if (auto *CSI = dyn_cast<AnyCoroSuspendInst>(Def)) {
// Don't spill immediately after a suspend; splitting assumes
// that the suspend will be followed by a branch.
InsertPt = CSI->getParent()->getSingleSuccessor()->getFirstNonPHI();
} else {
auto *I = cast<Instruction>(Def);
if (!DT.dominates(CB, I)) {
// If it is not dominated by CoroBegin, then spill should be
// inserted immediately after CoroFrame is computed.
InsertPt = FramePtr->getNextNode();
} else if (auto *II = dyn_cast<InvokeInst>(I)) {
// If we are spilling the result of the invoke instruction, split
// the normal edge and insert the spill in the new block.
auto *NewBB = SplitEdge(II->getParent(), II->getNormalDest());
InsertPt = NewBB->getTerminator();
} else if (isa<PHINode>(I)) {
// Skip the PHINodes and EH pads instructions.
BasicBlock *DefBlock = I->getParent();
if (auto *CSI = dyn_cast<CatchSwitchInst>(DefBlock->getTerminator()))
InsertPt = splitBeforeCatchSwitch(CSI);
InsertPt = &*DefBlock->getFirstInsertionPt();
} else {
assert(!I->isTerminator() && "unexpected terminator");
// For all other values, the spill is placed immediately after
// the definition.
InsertPt = I->getNextNode();
auto Index = FrameData.getFieldIndex(Def);
auto *G = Builder.CreateConstInBoundsGEP2_32(
FrameTy, FramePtr, 0, Index, Def->getName() + Twine(".spill.addr"));
Builder.CreateStore(Def, G);
BasicBlock *CurrentBlock = nullptr;
Value *CurrentReload = nullptr;
for (auto *U : E.second) {
// If we have not seen the use block, create a load instruction to reload
// the spilled value from the coroutine frame. Populates the Value pointer
// reference provided with the frame GEP.
if (CurrentBlock != U->getParent()) {
CurrentBlock = U->getParent();
auto *GEP = GetFramePointer(E.first);
GEP->setName(E.first->getName() + Twine(".reload.addr"));
CurrentReload = Builder.CreateLoad(
FrameTy->getElementType(FrameData.getFieldIndex(E.first)), GEP,
E.first->getName() + Twine(".reload"));
TinyPtrVector<DbgDeclareInst *> DIs = FindDbgDeclareUses(Def);
for (DbgDeclareInst *DDI : DIs) {
bool AllowUnresolved = false;
// This dbg.declare is preserved for all coro-split function
// fragments. It will be unreachable in the main function, and
// processed by coro::salvageDebugInfo() by CoroCloner.
DIBuilder(*CurrentBlock->getParent()->getParent(), AllowUnresolved)
.insertDeclare(CurrentReload, DDI->getVariable(),
DDI->getExpression(), DDI->getDebugLoc(),
// This dbg.declare is for the main function entry point. It
// will be deleted in all coro-split functions.
coro::salvageDebugInfo(DbgPtrAllocaCache, DDI);
// If we have a single edge PHINode, remove it and replace it with a
// reload from the coroutine frame. (We already took care of multi edge
// PHINodes by rewriting them in the rewritePHIs function).
if (auto *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(U)) {
assert(PN->getNumIncomingValues() == 1 &&
"unexpected number of incoming "
"values in the PHINode");
// Replace all uses of CurrentValue in the current instruction with
// reload.
U->replaceUsesOfWith(Def, CurrentReload);
BasicBlock *FramePtrBB = FramePtr->getParent();
auto SpillBlock =
FramePtrBB->splitBasicBlock(FramePtr->getNextNode(), "AllocaSpillBB");
SpillBlock->splitBasicBlock(&SpillBlock->front(), "PostSpill");
Shape.AllocaSpillBlock = SpillBlock;
// retcon and retcon.once lowering assumes all uses have been sunk.
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Retcon || Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::RetconOnce ||
Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Async) {
// If we found any allocas, replace all of their remaining uses with Geps.
for (const auto &P : FrameData.Allocas) {
AllocaInst *Alloca = P.Alloca;
auto *G = GetFramePointer(Alloca);
// We are not using ReplaceInstWithInst(P.first, cast<Instruction>(G))
// here, as we are changing location of the instruction.
return FramePtr;
// If we found any alloca, replace all of their remaining uses with GEP
// instructions. Because new dbg.declare have been created for these alloca,
// we also delete the original dbg.declare and replace other uses with undef.
// Note: We cannot replace the alloca with GEP instructions indiscriminately,
// as some of the uses may not be dominated by CoroBegin.
SmallVector<Instruction *, 4> UsersToUpdate;
for (const auto &A : FrameData.Allocas) {
AllocaInst *Alloca = A.Alloca;
for (User *U : Alloca->users()) {
auto *I = cast<Instruction>(U);
if (DT.dominates(CB, I))
if (UsersToUpdate.empty())
auto *G = GetFramePointer(Alloca);
G->setName(Alloca->getName() + Twine(".reload.addr"));
TinyPtrVector<DbgDeclareInst *> DIs = FindDbgDeclareUses(Alloca);
if (!DIs.empty())
/*AllowUnresolved*/ false)
.insertDeclare(G, DIs.front()->getVariable(),
DIs.front()->getDebugLoc(), DIs.front());
for (auto *DI : FindDbgDeclareUses(Alloca))
for (Instruction *I : UsersToUpdate)
I->replaceUsesOfWith(Alloca, G);
for (const auto &A : FrameData.Allocas) {
AllocaInst *Alloca = A.Alloca;
if (A.MayWriteBeforeCoroBegin) {
// isEscaped really means potentially modified before CoroBegin.
if (Alloca->isArrayAllocation())
"Coroutines cannot handle copying of array allocas yet");
auto *G = GetFramePointer(Alloca);
auto *Value = Builder.CreateLoad(Alloca->getAllocatedType(), Alloca);
Builder.CreateStore(Value, G);
// For each alias to Alloca created before CoroBegin but used after
// CoroBegin, we recreate them after CoroBegin by appplying the offset
// to the pointer in the frame.
for (const auto &Alias : A.Aliases) {
auto *FramePtr = GetFramePointer(Alloca);
auto *FramePtrRaw =
Builder.CreateBitCast(FramePtr, Type::getInt8PtrTy(C));
auto *AliasPtr = Builder.CreateGEP(
ConstantInt::get(Type::getInt64Ty(C), Alias.second.getValue()));
auto *AliasPtrTyped =
Builder.CreateBitCast(AliasPtr, Alias.first->getType());
AliasPtrTyped, [&](Use &U) { return DT.dominates(CB, U); });
return FramePtr;
// Sets the unwind edge of an instruction to a particular successor.
static void setUnwindEdgeTo(Instruction *TI, BasicBlock *Succ) {
if (auto *II = dyn_cast<InvokeInst>(TI))
else if (auto *CS = dyn_cast<CatchSwitchInst>(TI))
else if (auto *CR = dyn_cast<CleanupReturnInst>(TI))
llvm_unreachable("unexpected terminator instruction");
// Replaces all uses of OldPred with the NewPred block in all PHINodes in a
// block.
static void updatePhiNodes(BasicBlock *DestBB, BasicBlock *OldPred,
BasicBlock *NewPred, PHINode *Until = nullptr) {
unsigned BBIdx = 0;
for (BasicBlock::iterator I = DestBB->begin(); isa<PHINode>(I); ++I) {
PHINode *PN = cast<PHINode>(I);
// We manually update the LandingPadReplacement PHINode and it is the last
// PHI Node. So, if we find it, we are done.
if (Until == PN)
// Reuse the previous value of BBIdx if it lines up. In cases where we
// have multiple phi nodes with *lots* of predecessors, this is a speed
// win because we don't have to scan the PHI looking for TIBB. This
// happens because the BB list of PHI nodes are usually in the same
// order.
if (PN->getIncomingBlock(BBIdx) != OldPred)
BBIdx = PN->getBasicBlockIndex(OldPred);
assert(BBIdx != (unsigned)-1 && "Invalid PHI Index!");
PN->setIncomingBlock(BBIdx, NewPred);
// Uses SplitEdge unless the successor block is an EHPad, in which case do EH
// specific handling.
static BasicBlock *ehAwareSplitEdge(BasicBlock *BB, BasicBlock *Succ,
LandingPadInst *OriginalPad,
PHINode *LandingPadReplacement) {
auto *PadInst = Succ->getFirstNonPHI();
if (!LandingPadReplacement && !PadInst->isEHPad())
return SplitEdge(BB, Succ);
auto *NewBB = BasicBlock::Create(BB->getContext(), "", BB->getParent(), Succ);
setUnwindEdgeTo(BB->getTerminator(), NewBB);
updatePhiNodes(Succ, BB, NewBB, LandingPadReplacement);
if (LandingPadReplacement) {
auto *NewLP = OriginalPad->clone();
auto *Terminator = BranchInst::Create(Succ, NewBB);
LandingPadReplacement->addIncoming(NewLP, NewBB);
return NewBB;
Value *ParentPad = nullptr;
if (auto *FuncletPad = dyn_cast<FuncletPadInst>(PadInst))
ParentPad = FuncletPad->getParentPad();
else if (auto *CatchSwitch = dyn_cast<CatchSwitchInst>(PadInst))
ParentPad = CatchSwitch->getParentPad();
llvm_unreachable("handling for other EHPads not implemented yet");
auto *NewCleanupPad = CleanupPadInst::Create(ParentPad, {}, "", NewBB);
CleanupReturnInst::Create(NewCleanupPad, Succ, NewBB);
return NewBB;
// Moves the values in the PHIs in SuccBB that correspong to PredBB into a new
// PHI in InsertedBB.
static void movePHIValuesToInsertedBlock(BasicBlock *SuccBB,
BasicBlock *InsertedBB,
BasicBlock *PredBB,
PHINode *UntilPHI = nullptr) {
auto *PN = cast<PHINode>(&SuccBB->front());
do {
int Index = PN->getBasicBlockIndex(InsertedBB);
Value *V = PN->getIncomingValue(Index);
PHINode *InputV = PHINode::Create(
V->getType(), 1, V->getName() + Twine(".") + SuccBB->getName(),
InputV->addIncoming(V, PredBB);
PN->setIncomingValue(Index, InputV);
PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(PN->getNextNode());
} while (PN != UntilPHI);
// Rewrites the PHI Nodes in a cleanuppad.
static void rewritePHIsForCleanupPad(BasicBlock *CleanupPadBB,
CleanupPadInst *CleanupPad) {
// For every incoming edge to a CleanupPad we will create a new block holding
// all incoming values in single-value PHI nodes. We will then create another
// block to act as a dispather (as all unwind edges for related EH blocks
// must be the same).
// cleanuppad:
// %2 = phi i32[%0, %catchswitch], [%1, %catch.1]
// %3 = cleanuppad within none []
// It will create:
// cleanuppad.corodispatch
// %2 = phi i8[0, %catchswitch], [1, %catch.1]
// %3 = cleanuppad within none []
// switch i8 % 2, label %unreachable
// [i8 0, label %cleanuppad.from.catchswitch
// i8 1, label %cleanuppad.from.catch.1]
// cleanuppad.from.catchswitch:
// %4 = phi i32 [%0, %catchswitch]
// br %label cleanuppad
// cleanuppad.from.catch.1:
// %6 = phi i32 [%1, %catch.1]
// br %label cleanuppad
// cleanuppad:
// %8 = phi i32 [%4, %cleanuppad.from.catchswitch],
// [%6, %cleanuppad.from.catch.1]
// Unreachable BB, in case switching on an invalid value in the dispatcher.
auto *UnreachBB = BasicBlock::Create(
CleanupPadBB->getContext(), "unreachable", CleanupPadBB->getParent());
IRBuilder<> Builder(UnreachBB);
// Create a new cleanuppad which will be the dispatcher.
auto *NewCleanupPadBB =
CleanupPadBB->getName() + Twine(".corodispatch"),
CleanupPadBB->getParent(), CleanupPadBB);
auto *SwitchType = Builder.getInt8Ty();
auto *SetDispatchValuePN =
Builder.CreatePHI(SwitchType, pred_size(CleanupPadBB));
auto *SwitchOnDispatch = Builder.CreateSwitch(SetDispatchValuePN, UnreachBB,
int SwitchIndex = 0;
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, 8> Preds(predecessors(CleanupPadBB));
for (BasicBlock *Pred : Preds) {
// Create a new cleanuppad and move the PHI values to there.
auto *CaseBB = BasicBlock::Create(CleanupPadBB->getContext(),
CleanupPadBB->getName() +
Twine(".from.") + Pred->getName(),
CleanupPadBB->getParent(), CleanupPadBB);
updatePhiNodes(CleanupPadBB, Pred, CaseBB);
CaseBB->setName(CleanupPadBB->getName() + Twine(".from.") +
movePHIValuesToInsertedBlock(CleanupPadBB, CaseBB, NewCleanupPadBB);
// Update this Pred to the new unwind point.
setUnwindEdgeTo(Pred->getTerminator(), NewCleanupPadBB);
// Setup the switch in the dispatcher.
auto *SwitchConstant = ConstantInt::get(SwitchType, SwitchIndex);
SetDispatchValuePN->addIncoming(SwitchConstant, Pred);
SwitchOnDispatch->addCase(SwitchConstant, CaseBB);
static void rewritePHIs(BasicBlock &BB) {
// For every incoming edge we will create a block holding all
// incoming values in a single PHI nodes.
// loop:
// %n.val = phi i32[%n, %entry], [%inc, %loop]
// It will create:
// loop.from.entry:
// %n.loop.pre = phi i32 [%n, %entry]
// br %label loop
// loop.from.loop:
// %inc.loop.pre = phi i32 [%inc, %loop]
// br %label loop
// After this rewrite, further analysis will ignore any phi nodes with more
// than one incoming edge.
// TODO: Simplify PHINodes in the basic block to remove duplicate
// predecessors.
// Special case for CleanupPad: all EH blocks must have the same unwind edge
// so we need to create an additional "dispatcher" block.
if (auto *CleanupPad =
dyn_cast_or_null<CleanupPadInst>(BB.getFirstNonPHI())) {
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, 8> Preds(predecessors(&BB));
for (BasicBlock *Pred : Preds) {
if (CatchSwitchInst *CS =
dyn_cast<CatchSwitchInst>(Pred->getTerminator())) {
// CleanupPad with a CatchSwitch predecessor: therefore this is an
// unwind destination that needs to be handle specially.
assert(CS->getUnwindDest() == &BB);
rewritePHIsForCleanupPad(&BB, CleanupPad);
LandingPadInst *LandingPad = nullptr;
PHINode *ReplPHI = nullptr;
if ((LandingPad = dyn_cast_or_null<LandingPadInst>(BB.getFirstNonPHI()))) {
// ehAwareSplitEdge will clone the LandingPad in all the edge blocks.
// We replace the original landing pad with a PHINode that will collect the
// results from all of them.
ReplPHI = PHINode::Create(LandingPad->getType(), 1, "", LandingPad);
// We will erase the original landing pad at the end of this function after
// ehAwareSplitEdge cloned it in the transition blocks.
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, 8> Preds(predecessors(&BB));
for (BasicBlock *Pred : Preds) {
auto *IncomingBB = ehAwareSplitEdge(Pred, &BB, LandingPad, ReplPHI);
IncomingBB->setName(BB.getName() + Twine(".from.") + Pred->getName());
// Stop the moving of values at ReplPHI, as this is either null or the PHI
// that replaced the landing pad.
movePHIValuesToInsertedBlock(&BB, IncomingBB, Pred, ReplPHI);
if (LandingPad) {
// Calls to ehAwareSplitEdge function cloned the original lading pad.
// No longer need it.
static void rewritePHIs(Function &F) {
SmallVector<BasicBlock *, 8> WorkList;
for (BasicBlock &BB : F)
if (auto *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(&BB.front()))
if (PN->getNumIncomingValues() > 1)
for (BasicBlock *BB : WorkList)
// Check for instructions that we can recreate on resume as opposed to spill
// the result into a coroutine frame.
static bool materializable(Instruction &V) {
return isa<CastInst>(&V) || isa<GetElementPtrInst>(&V) ||
isa<BinaryOperator>(&V) || isa<CmpInst>(&V) || isa<SelectInst>(&V);
// Check for structural coroutine intrinsics that should not be spilled into
// the coroutine frame.
static bool isCoroutineStructureIntrinsic(Instruction &I) {
return isa<CoroIdInst>(&I) || isa<CoroSaveInst>(&I) ||
// For every use of the value that is across suspend point, recreate that value
// after a suspend point.
static void rewriteMaterializableInstructions(IRBuilder<> &IRB,
const SpillInfo &Spills) {
for (const auto &E : Spills) {
Value *Def = E.first;
BasicBlock *CurrentBlock = nullptr;
Instruction *CurrentMaterialization = nullptr;
for (Instruction *U : E.second) {
// If we have not seen this block, materialize the value.
if (CurrentBlock != U->getParent()) {
CurrentBlock = U->getParent();
CurrentMaterialization = cast<Instruction>(Def)->clone();
if (auto *PN = dyn_cast<PHINode>(U)) {
assert(PN->getNumIncomingValues() == 1 &&
"unexpected number of incoming "
"values in the PHINode");
// Replace all uses of Def in the current instruction with the
// CurrentMaterialization for the block.
U->replaceUsesOfWith(Def, CurrentMaterialization);
// Splits the block at a particular instruction unless it is the first
// instruction in the block with a single predecessor.
static BasicBlock *splitBlockIfNotFirst(Instruction *I, const Twine &Name) {
auto *BB = I->getParent();
if (&BB->front() == I) {
if (BB->getSinglePredecessor()) {
return BB;
return BB->splitBasicBlock(I, Name);
// Split above and below a particular instruction so that it
// will be all alone by itself in a block.
static void splitAround(Instruction *I, const Twine &Name) {
splitBlockIfNotFirst(I, Name);
splitBlockIfNotFirst(I->getNextNode(), "After" + Name);
static bool isSuspendBlock(BasicBlock *BB) {
return isa<AnyCoroSuspendInst>(BB->front());
typedef SmallPtrSet<BasicBlock*, 8> VisitedBlocksSet;
/// Does control flow starting at the given block ever reach a suspend
/// instruction before reaching a block in VisitedOrFreeBBs?
static bool isSuspendReachableFrom(BasicBlock *From,
VisitedBlocksSet &VisitedOrFreeBBs) {
// Eagerly try to add this block to the visited set. If it's already
// there, stop recursing; this path doesn't reach a suspend before
// either looping or reaching a freeing block.
if (!VisitedOrFreeBBs.insert(From).second)
return false;
// We assume that we'll already have split suspends into their own blocks.
if (isSuspendBlock(From))
return true;
// Recurse on the successors.
for (auto Succ : successors(From)) {
if (isSuspendReachableFrom(Succ, VisitedOrFreeBBs))
return true;
return false;
/// Is the given alloca "local", i.e. bounded in lifetime to not cross a
/// suspend point?
static bool isLocalAlloca(CoroAllocaAllocInst *AI) {
// Seed the visited set with all the basic blocks containing a free
// so that we won't pass them up.
VisitedBlocksSet VisitedOrFreeBBs;
for (auto User : AI->users()) {
if (auto FI = dyn_cast<CoroAllocaFreeInst>(User))
return !isSuspendReachableFrom(AI->getParent(), VisitedOrFreeBBs);
/// After we split the coroutine, will the given basic block be along
/// an obvious exit path for the resumption function?
static bool willLeaveFunctionImmediatelyAfter(BasicBlock *BB,
unsigned depth = 3) {
// If we've bottomed out our depth count, stop searching and assume
// that the path might loop back.
if (depth == 0) return false;
// If this is a suspend block, we're about to exit the resumption function.
if (isSuspendBlock(BB)) return true;
// Recurse into the successors.
for (auto Succ : successors(BB)) {
if (!willLeaveFunctionImmediatelyAfter(Succ, depth - 1))
return false;
// If none of the successors leads back in a loop, we're on an exit/abort.
return true;
static bool localAllocaNeedsStackSave(CoroAllocaAllocInst *AI) {
// Look for a free that isn't sufficiently obviously followed by
// either a suspend or a termination, i.e. something that will leave
// the coro resumption frame.
for (auto U : AI->users()) {
auto FI = dyn_cast<CoroAllocaFreeInst>(U);
if (!FI) continue;
if (!willLeaveFunctionImmediatelyAfter(FI->getParent()))
return true;
// If we never found one, we don't need a stack save.
return false;
/// Turn each of the given local allocas into a normal (dynamic) alloca
/// instruction.
static void lowerLocalAllocas(ArrayRef<CoroAllocaAllocInst*> LocalAllocas,
SmallVectorImpl<Instruction*> &DeadInsts) {
for (auto AI : LocalAllocas) {
auto M = AI->getModule();
IRBuilder<> Builder(AI);
// Save the stack depth. Try to avoid doing this if the stackrestore
// is going to immediately precede a return or something.
Value *StackSave = nullptr;
if (localAllocaNeedsStackSave(AI))
StackSave = Builder.CreateCall(
Intrinsic::getDeclaration(M, Intrinsic::stacksave));
// Allocate memory.
auto Alloca = Builder.CreateAlloca(Builder.getInt8Ty(), AI->getSize());
for (auto U : AI->users()) {
// Replace gets with the allocation.
if (isa<CoroAllocaGetInst>(U)) {
// Replace frees with stackrestores. This is safe because
// alloca.alloc is required to obey a stack discipline, although we
// don't enforce that structurally.
} else {
auto FI = cast<CoroAllocaFreeInst>(U);
if (StackSave) {
Intrinsic::getDeclaration(M, Intrinsic::stackrestore),
/// Turn the given coro.alloca.alloc call into a dynamic allocation.
/// This happens during the all-instructions iteration, so it must not
/// delete the call.
static Instruction *lowerNonLocalAlloca(CoroAllocaAllocInst *AI,
coro::Shape &Shape,
SmallVectorImpl<Instruction*> &DeadInsts) {
IRBuilder<> Builder(AI);
auto Alloc = Shape.emitAlloc(Builder, AI->getSize(), nullptr);
for (User *U : AI->users()) {
if (isa<CoroAllocaGetInst>(U)) {
} else {
auto FI = cast<CoroAllocaFreeInst>(U);
Shape.emitDealloc(Builder, Alloc, nullptr);
// Push this on last so that it gets deleted after all the others.
// Return the new allocation value so that we can check for needed spills.
return cast<Instruction>(Alloc);
/// Get the current swifterror value.
static Value *emitGetSwiftErrorValue(IRBuilder<> &Builder, Type *ValueTy,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
// Make a fake function pointer as a sort of intrinsic.
auto FnTy = FunctionType::get(ValueTy, {}, false);
auto Fn = ConstantPointerNull::get(FnTy->getPointerTo());
auto Call = Builder.CreateCall(FnTy, Fn, {});
return Call;
/// Set the given value as the current swifterror value.
/// Returns a slot that can be used as a swifterror slot.
static Value *emitSetSwiftErrorValue(IRBuilder<> &Builder, Value *V,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
// Make a fake function pointer as a sort of intrinsic.
auto FnTy = FunctionType::get(V->getType()->getPointerTo(),
{V->getType()}, false);
auto Fn = ConstantPointerNull::get(FnTy->getPointerTo());
auto Call = Builder.CreateCall(FnTy, Fn, { V });
return Call;
/// Set the swifterror value from the given alloca before a call,
/// then put in back in the alloca afterwards.
/// Returns an address that will stand in for the swifterror slot
/// until splitting.
static Value *emitSetAndGetSwiftErrorValueAround(Instruction *Call,
AllocaInst *Alloca,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
auto ValueTy = Alloca->getAllocatedType();
IRBuilder<> Builder(Call);
// Load the current value from the alloca and set it as the
// swifterror value.
auto ValueBeforeCall = Builder.CreateLoad(ValueTy, Alloca);
auto Addr = emitSetSwiftErrorValue(Builder, ValueBeforeCall, Shape);
// Move to after the call. Since swifterror only has a guaranteed
// value on normal exits, we can ignore implicit and explicit unwind
// edges.
if (isa<CallInst>(Call)) {
} else {
auto Invoke = cast<InvokeInst>(Call);
// Get the current swifterror value and store it to the alloca.
auto ValueAfterCall = emitGetSwiftErrorValue(Builder, ValueTy, Shape);
Builder.CreateStore(ValueAfterCall, Alloca);
return Addr;
/// Eliminate a formerly-swifterror alloca by inserting the get/set
/// intrinsics and attempting to MemToReg the alloca away.
static void eliminateSwiftErrorAlloca(Function &F, AllocaInst *Alloca,
coro::Shape &Shape) {
for (auto UI = Alloca->use_begin(), UE = Alloca->use_end(); UI != UE; ) {
// We're likely changing the use list, so use a mutation-safe
// iteration pattern.
auto &Use = *UI;
// swifterror values can only be used in very specific ways.
// We take advantage of that here.
auto User = Use.getUser();
if (isa<LoadInst>(User) || isa<StoreInst>(User))
assert(isa<CallInst>(User) || isa<InvokeInst>(User));
auto Call = cast<Instruction>(User);
auto Addr = emitSetAndGetSwiftErrorValueAround(Call, Alloca, Shape);
// Use the returned slot address as the call argument.
// All the uses should be loads and stores now.
/// "Eliminate" a swifterror argument by reducing it to the alloca case
/// and then loading and storing in the prologue and epilog.
/// The argument keeps the swifterror flag.
static void eliminateSwiftErrorArgument(Function &F, Argument &Arg,
coro::Shape &Shape,
SmallVectorImpl<AllocaInst*> &AllocasToPromote) {
IRBuilder<> Builder(F.getEntryBlock().getFirstNonPHIOrDbg());
auto ArgTy = cast<PointerType>(Arg.getType());
auto ValueTy = ArgTy->getElementType();
// Reduce to the alloca case:
// Create an alloca and replace all uses of the arg with it.
auto Alloca = Builder.CreateAlloca(ValueTy, ArgTy->getAddressSpace());
// Set an initial value in the alloca. swifterror is always null on entry.
auto InitialValue = Constant::getNullValue(ValueTy);
Builder.CreateStore(InitialValue, Alloca);
// Find all the suspends in the function and save and restore around them.
for (auto Suspend : Shape.CoroSuspends) {
(void) emitSetAndGetSwiftErrorValueAround(Suspend, Alloca, Shape);
// Find all the coro.ends in the function and restore the error value.
for (auto End : Shape.CoroEnds) {
auto FinalValue = Builder.CreateLoad(ValueTy, Alloca);
(void) emitSetSwiftErrorValue(Builder, FinalValue, Shape);
// Now we can use the alloca logic.
eliminateSwiftErrorAlloca(F, Alloca, Shape);
/// Eliminate all problematic uses of swifterror arguments and allocas
/// from the function. We'll fix them up later when splitting the function.
static void eliminateSwiftError(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape) {
SmallVector<AllocaInst*, 4> AllocasToPromote;
// Look for a swifterror argument.
for (auto &Arg : F.args()) {
if (!Arg.hasSwiftErrorAttr()) continue;
eliminateSwiftErrorArgument(F, Arg, Shape, AllocasToPromote);
// Look for swifterror allocas.
for (auto &Inst : F.getEntryBlock()) {
auto Alloca = dyn_cast<AllocaInst>(&Inst);
if (!Alloca || !Alloca->isSwiftError()) continue;
// Clear the swifterror flag.
eliminateSwiftErrorAlloca(F, Alloca, Shape);
// If we have any allocas to promote, compute a dominator tree and
// promote them en masse.
if (!AllocasToPromote.empty()) {
DominatorTree DT(F);
PromoteMemToReg(AllocasToPromote, DT);
/// retcon and retcon.once conventions assume that all spill uses can be sunk
/// after the coro.begin intrinsic.
static void sinkSpillUsesAfterCoroBegin(Function &F,
const FrameDataInfo &FrameData,
CoroBeginInst *CoroBegin) {
DominatorTree Dom(F);
SmallSetVector<Instruction *, 32> ToMove;
SmallVector<Instruction *, 32> Worklist;
// Collect all users that precede coro.begin.
for (auto *Def : FrameData.getAllDefs()) {
for (User *U : Def->users()) {
auto Inst = cast<Instruction>(U);
if (Inst->getParent() != CoroBegin->getParent() ||
Dom.dominates(CoroBegin, Inst))
if (ToMove.insert(Inst))
// Recursively collect users before coro.begin.
while (!Worklist.empty()) {
auto *Def = Worklist.pop_back_val();
for (User *U : Def->users()) {
auto Inst = cast<Instruction>(U);
if (Dom.dominates(CoroBegin, Inst))
if (ToMove.insert(Inst))
// Sort by dominance.
SmallVector<Instruction *, 64> InsertionList(ToMove.begin(), ToMove.end());
llvm::sort(InsertionList, [&Dom](Instruction *A, Instruction *B) -> bool {
// If a dominates b it should preceed (<) b.
return Dom.dominates(A, B);
Instruction *InsertPt = CoroBegin->getNextNode();
for (Instruction *Inst : InsertionList)
/// For each local variable that all of its user are only used inside one of
/// suspended region, we sink their lifetime.start markers to the place where
/// after the suspend block. Doing so minimizes the lifetime of each variable,
/// hence minimizing the amount of data we end up putting on the frame.
static void sinkLifetimeStartMarkers(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape,
SuspendCrossingInfo &Checker) {
DominatorTree DT(F);
// Collect all possible basic blocks which may dominate all uses of allocas.
SmallPtrSet<BasicBlock *, 4> DomSet;
for (auto *CSI : Shape.CoroSuspends) {
BasicBlock *SuspendBlock = CSI->getParent();
assert(isSuspendBlock(SuspendBlock) && SuspendBlock->getSingleSuccessor() &&
"should have split coro.suspend into its own block");
for (Instruction &I : instructions(F)) {
AllocaInst* AI = dyn_cast<AllocaInst>(&I);
if (!AI)
for (BasicBlock *DomBB : DomSet) {
bool Valid = true;
SmallVector<Instruction *, 1> Lifetimes;
auto isLifetimeStart = [](Instruction* I) {
if (auto* II = dyn_cast<IntrinsicInst>(I))
return II->getIntrinsicID() == Intrinsic::lifetime_start;
return false;
auto collectLifetimeStart = [&](Instruction *U, AllocaInst *AI) {
if (isLifetimeStart(U)) {
return true;
if (!U->hasOneUse() || U->stripPointerCasts() != AI)
return false;
if (isLifetimeStart(U->user_back())) {
return true;
return false;
for (User *U : AI->users()) {
Instruction *UI = cast<Instruction>(U);
// For all users except lifetime.start markers, if they are all
// dominated by one of the basic blocks and do not cross
// suspend points as well, then there is no need to spill the
// instruction.
if (!DT.dominates(DomBB, UI->getParent()) ||
Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(DomBB, UI)) {
// Skip lifetime.start, GEP and bitcast used by lifetime.start
// markers.
if (collectLifetimeStart(UI, AI))
Valid = false;
// Sink lifetime.start markers to dominate block when they are
// only used outside the region.
if (Valid && Lifetimes.size() != 0) {
// May be AI itself, when the type of AI is i8*
auto *NewBitCast = [&](AllocaInst *AI) -> Value* {
if (isa<AllocaInst>(Lifetimes[0]->getOperand(1)))
return AI;
auto *Int8PtrTy = Type::getInt8PtrTy(F.getContext());
return CastInst::Create(Instruction::BitCast, AI, Int8PtrTy, "",
auto *NewLifetime = Lifetimes[0]->clone();
NewLifetime->replaceUsesOfWith(NewLifetime->getOperand(1), NewBitCast);
// All the outsided lifetime.start markers are no longer necessary.
for (Instruction *S : Lifetimes)
static void collectFrameAllocas(Function &F, coro::Shape &Shape,
const SuspendCrossingInfo &Checker,
SmallVectorImpl<AllocaInfo> &Allocas) {
for (Instruction &I : instructions(F)) {
auto *AI = dyn_cast<AllocaInst>(&I);
if (!AI)
// The PromiseAlloca will be specially handled since it needs to be in a
// fixed position in the frame.
if (AI == Shape.SwitchLowering.PromiseAlloca) {
DominatorTree DT(F);
AllocaUseVisitor Visitor{F.getParent()->getDataLayout(), DT,
*Shape.CoroBegin, Checker};
if (!Visitor.getShouldLiveOnFrame())
Allocas.emplace_back(AI, Visitor.getAliasesCopy(),
void coro::salvageDebugInfo(
SmallDenseMap<llvm::Value *, llvm::AllocaInst *, 4> &DbgPtrAllocaCache,
DbgDeclareInst *DDI) {
Function *F = DDI->getFunction();
IRBuilder<> Builder(F->getContext());
auto InsertPt = F->getEntryBlock().getFirstInsertionPt();
while (isa<IntrinsicInst>(InsertPt))
Builder.SetInsertPoint(&F->getEntryBlock(), InsertPt);
DIExpression *Expr = DDI->getExpression();
// Follow the pointer arithmetic all the way to the incoming
// function argument and convert into a DIExpression.
bool OutermostLoad = true;
Value *Storage = DDI->getAddress();
Value *OriginalStorage = Storage;
while (Storage) {
if (auto *LdInst = dyn_cast<LoadInst>(Storage)) {
Storage = LdInst->getOperand(0);
// FIXME: This is a heuristic that works around the fact that
// LLVM IR debug intrinsics cannot yet distinguish between
// memory and value locations: Because a dbg.declare(alloca) is
// implicitly a memory location no DW_OP_deref operation for the
// last direct load from an alloca is necessary. This condition
// effectively drops the *last* DW_OP_deref in the expression.
if (!OutermostLoad)
Expr = DIExpression::prepend(Expr, DIExpression::DerefBefore);
OutermostLoad = false;
} else if (auto *StInst = dyn_cast<StoreInst>(Storage)) {
Storage = StInst->getOperand(0);
} else if (auto *GEPInst = dyn_cast<GetElementPtrInst>(Storage)) {
Expr = llvm::salvageDebugInfoImpl(*GEPInst, Expr,
/*WithStackValue=*/false, 0);
if (!Expr)
Storage = GEPInst->getOperand(0);
} else if (auto *BCInst = dyn_cast<llvm::BitCastInst>(Storage))
Storage = BCInst->getOperand(0);
if (!Storage)
// Store a pointer to the coroutine frame object in an alloca so it
// is available throughout the function when producing unoptimized
// code. Extending the lifetime this way is correct because the
// variable has been declared by a dbg.declare intrinsic.
if (auto Arg = dyn_cast_or_null<llvm::Argument>(Storage)) {
auto &Cached = DbgPtrAllocaCache[Storage];
if (!Cached) {
Cached = Builder.CreateAlloca(Storage->getType(), 0, nullptr,
Arg->getName() + ".debug");
Builder.CreateStore(Storage, Cached);
Storage = Cached;
// FIXME: LLVM lacks nuanced semantics to differentiate between
// memory and direct locations at the IR level. The backend will
// turn a dbg.declare(alloca, ..., DIExpression()) into a memory
// location. Thus, if there are deref and offset operations in the
// expression, we need to add a DW_OP_deref at the *start* of the
// expression to first load the contents of the alloca before
// adjusting it with the expression.
if (Expr && Expr->isComplex())
Expr = DIExpression::prepend(Expr, DIExpression::DerefBefore);
DDI->replaceVariableLocationOp(OriginalStorage, Storage);
if (auto *InsertPt = dyn_cast_or_null<Instruction>(Storage))
void coro::buildCoroutineFrame(Function &F, Shape &Shape) {
// Don't eliminate swifterror in async functions that won't be split.
if (Shape.ABI != coro::ABI::Async || !Shape.CoroSuspends.empty())
eliminateSwiftError(F, Shape);
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Switch &&
Shape.SwitchLowering.PromiseAlloca) {
// Make sure that all, coro.suspend and the fallthrough coro.end
// intrinsics are in their own blocks to simplify the logic of building up
// SuspendCrossing data.
for (auto *CSI : Shape.CoroSuspends) {
if (auto *Save = CSI->getCoroSave())
splitAround(Save, "CoroSave");
splitAround(CSI, "CoroSuspend");
// Put CoroEnds into their own blocks.
for (AnyCoroEndInst *CE : Shape.CoroEnds) {
splitAround(CE, "CoroEnd");
// Emit the musttail call function in a new block before the CoroEnd.
// We do this here so that the right suspend crossing info is computed for
// the uses of the musttail call function call. (Arguments to the coro.end
// instructions would be ignored)
if (auto *AsyncEnd = dyn_cast<CoroAsyncEndInst>(CE)) {
auto *MustTailCallFn = AsyncEnd->getMustTailCallFunction();
if (!MustTailCallFn)
IRBuilder<> Builder(AsyncEnd);
SmallVector<Value *, 8> Args(AsyncEnd->args());
auto Arguments = ArrayRef<Value *>(Args).drop_front(3);
auto *Call = createMustTailCall(AsyncEnd->getDebugLoc(), MustTailCallFn,
Arguments, Builder);
splitAround(Call, "MustTailCall.Before.CoroEnd");
// Transforms multi-edge PHI Nodes, so that any value feeding into a PHI will
// never has its definition separated from the PHI by the suspend point.
// Build suspend crossing info.
SuspendCrossingInfo Checker(F, Shape);
IRBuilder<> Builder(F.getContext());
FrameDataInfo FrameData;
SmallVector<CoroAllocaAllocInst*, 4> LocalAllocas;
SmallVector<Instruction*, 4> DeadInstructions;
SpillInfo Spills;
for (int Repeat = 0; Repeat < 4; ++Repeat) {
// See if there are materializable instructions across suspend points.
for (Instruction &I : instructions(F))
if (materializable(I))
for (User *U : I.users())
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(I, U))
if (Spills.empty())
// Rewrite materializable instructions to be materialized at the use
// point.
LLVM_DEBUG(dumpSpills("Materializations", Spills));
rewriteMaterializableInstructions(Builder, Spills);
sinkLifetimeStartMarkers(F, Shape, Checker);
if (Shape.ABI != coro::ABI::Async || !Shape.CoroSuspends.empty())
collectFrameAllocas(F, Shape, Checker, FrameData.Allocas);
// Collect the spills for arguments and other not-materializable values.
for (Argument &A : F.args())
for (User *U : A.users())
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(A, U))
for (Instruction &I : instructions(F)) {
// Values returned from coroutine structure intrinsics should not be part
// of the Coroutine Frame.
if (isCoroutineStructureIntrinsic(I) || &I == Shape.CoroBegin)
// The Coroutine Promise always included into coroutine frame, no need to
// check for suspend crossing.
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Switch &&
Shape.SwitchLowering.PromiseAlloca == &I)
// Handle alloca.alloc specially here.
if (auto AI = dyn_cast<CoroAllocaAllocInst>(&I)) {
// Check whether the alloca's lifetime is bounded by suspend points.
if (isLocalAlloca(AI)) {
// If not, do a quick rewrite of the alloca and then add spills of
// the rewritten value. The rewrite doesn't invalidate anything in
// Spills because the other alloca intrinsics have no other operands
// besides AI, and it doesn't invalidate the iteration because we delay
// erasing AI.
auto Alloc = lowerNonLocalAlloca(AI, Shape, DeadInstructions);
for (User *U : Alloc->users()) {
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(*Alloc, U))
// Ignore alloca.get; we process this as part of coro.alloca.alloc.
if (isa<CoroAllocaGetInst>(I))
if (isa<AllocaInst>(I))
for (User *U : I.users())
if (Checker.isDefinitionAcrossSuspend(I, U)) {
// We cannot spill a token.
if (I.getType()->isTokenTy())
"token definition is separated from the use by a suspend point");
LLVM_DEBUG(dumpSpills("Spills", FrameData.Spills));
if (Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Retcon || Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::RetconOnce ||
Shape.ABI == coro::ABI::Async)
sinkSpillUsesAfterCoroBegin(F, FrameData, Shape.CoroBegin);
Shape.FrameTy = buildFrameType(F, Shape, FrameData);
Shape.FramePtr = insertSpills(FrameData, Shape);
lowerLocalAllocas(LocalAllocas, DeadInstructions);
for (auto I : DeadInstructions)