llvm / llvm-project / llvm / 5c4b039b3e40c0c4f3ccfbbe875ca6a406e28206 / . / docs / CycleTerminology.rst

.. _cycle-terminology: | |

====================== | |

LLVM Cycle Terminology | |

====================== | |

.. contents:: | |

:local: | |

.. _cycle-definition: | |

Cycles | |

====== | |

Cycles are a generalization of LLVM :ref:`loops <loop-terminology>`, | |

defined recursively as follows [HavlakCycles]_: | |

1. In a directed graph G that is a function CFG or a subgraph of it, a *cycle* | |

is a maximal strongly connected region with at least one internal edge. | |

(Informational note --- The requirement for at least one internal edge | |

ensures that a single basic block is a cycle only if there is an edge | |

that goes back to the same basic block.) | |

2. A basic block in a cycle that can be reached from the entry of | |

the function along a path that does not visit any other basic block | |

in the cycle is called an *entry* of the cycle. | |

A cycle can have multiple entries. | |

3. For a given depth-first search starting from the entry of the function, the | |

first node of a cycle to be visited is called the *header* of this cycle | |

with respect to this particular DFS. The header is always an entry node. | |

4. In any depth-first search starting from the entry, the set of cycles | |

found in the CFG is the same. These are the *top-level cycles* | |

that do not themselves have a parent. | |

5. The *child cycles* (or simply cycles) nested inside a cycle C with | |

header H are the cycles in the subgraph induced on the set of nodes (C - H). | |

C is said to be the *parent* of these cycles. | |

Thus, cycles form an implementation-defined forest where each cycle C is | |

the parent of any child cycles nested inside C. The tree closely | |

follows the nesting of loops in the same function. The unique entry of | |

a reducible cycle (an LLVM loop) L dominates all its other nodes, and | |

is always chosen as the header of some cycle C regardless of the DFS | |

tree used. This cycle C is a superset of the loop L. For an | |

irreducible cycle, no one entry dominates the nodes of the cycle. One | |

of the entries is chosen as header of the cycle, in an | |

implementation-defined way. | |

.. _cycle-irreducible: | |

A cycle is *irreducible* if it has multiple entries and it is | |

*reducible* otherwise. | |

.. _cycle-parent-block: | |

A cycle C is said to be the *parent* of a basic block B if B occurs in | |

C but not in any child cycle of C. Then B is also said to be a *child* | |

of cycle C. | |

.. _cycle-toplevel-block: | |

A block B is said to be a *top-level block* if it is not the child of | |

any cycle. | |

.. _cycle-sibling: | |

A basic block or cycle X is a *sibling* of another basic block or | |

cycle Y if they both have no parent or both have the same parent. | |

Informational notes: | |

- Non-header entry blocks of a cycle can be contained in child cycles. | |

- If the CFG is reducible, the cycles are exactly the natural loops and | |

every cycle has exactly one entry block. | |

- Cycles are well-nested (by definition). | |

- The entry blocks of a cycle are siblings in the dominator tree. | |

.. [HavlakCycles] Paul Havlak, "Nesting of reducible and irreducible | |

loops." ACM Transactions on Programming Languages | |

and Systems (TOPLAS) 19.4 (1997): 557-567. | |

.. _cycle-examples: | |

Examples of Cycles | |

================== | |

Irreducible cycle enclosing natural loops | |

----------------------------------------- | |

.. Graphviz source; the indented blocks below form a comment. | |

/// | | | |

/// />A] [B<\ | |

/// | \ / | | |

/// ^---C---^ | |

/// | | |

strict digraph { | |

{ rank=same; A B} | |

Entry -> A | |

Entry -> B | |

A -> A | |

A -> C | |

B -> B | |

B -> C | |

C -> A | |

C -> B | |

C -> Exit | |

} | |

.. image:: cycle-1.png | |

The self-loops of ``A`` and ``B`` give rise to two single-block | |

natural loops. A possible hierarchy of cycles is:: | |

cycle: {A, B, C} entries: {A, B} header: A | |

- cycle: {B, C} entries: {B, C} header: C | |

- cycle: {B} entries: {B} header: B | |

This hierarchy arises when DFS visits the blocks in the order ``A``, | |

``C``, ``B`` (in preorder). | |

Irreducible union of two natural loops | |

-------------------------------------- | |

.. Graphviz source; the indented blocks below form a comment. | |

/// | | | |

/// A<->B | |

/// ^ ^ | |

/// | | | |

/// v v | |

/// C D | |

/// | | | |

strict digraph { | |

{ rank=same; A B} | |

{ rank=same; C D} | |

Entry -> A | |

Entry -> B | |

A -> B | |

B -> A | |

A -> C | |

C -> A | |

B -> D | |

D -> B | |

C -> Exit | |

D -> Exit | |

} | |

.. image:: cycle-2.png | |

There are two natural loops: ``{A, C}`` and ``{B, D}``. A possible | |

hierarchy of cycles is:: | |

cycle: {A, B, C, D} entries: {A, B} header: A | |

- cycle: {B, D} entries: {B} header: B | |

Irreducible cycle without natural loops | |

--------------------------------------- | |

.. Graphviz source; the indented blocks below form a comment. | |

/// | | | |

/// />A B<\ | |

/// | |\ /| | | |

/// | | x | | | |

/// | |/ \| | | |

/// ^-C D-^ | |

/// | | | |

/// | |

strict digraph { | |

{ rank=same; A B} | |

{ rank=same; C D} | |

Entry -> A | |

Entry -> B | |

A -> C | |

A -> D | |

B -> C | |

B -> D | |

C -> A | |

D -> B | |

C -> Exit | |

D -> Exit | |

} | |

.. image:: cycle-3.png | |

This graph does not contain any natural loops --- the nodes ``A``, | |

``B``, ``C`` and ``D`` are siblings in the dominator tree. A possible | |

hierarchy of cycles is:: | |

cycle: {A, B, C, D} entries: {A, B} header: A | |

- cycle: {B, D} entries: {B, D} header: D | |

.. _cycle-closed-path: | |

Closed Paths and Cycles | |

======================= | |

A *closed path* in a CFG is a connected sequence of nodes and edges in | |

the CFG whose start and end nodes are the same, and whose remaining | |

(inner) nodes are distinct. | |

An *entry* to a closed path ``P`` is a node on ``P`` that is reachable | |

from the function entry without passing through any other node on ``P``. | |

1. If a node D dominates one or more nodes in a closed path P and P | |

does not contain D, then D dominates every node in P. | |

**Proof:** Let U be a node in P that is dominated by D. If there | |

was a node V in P not dominated by D, then U would be reachable | |

from the function entry node via V without passing through D, which | |

contradicts the fact that D dominates U. | |

2. If a node D dominates one or more nodes in a closed path P and P | |

does not contain D, then there exists a cycle C that contains P but | |

not D. | |

**Proof:** From the above property, D dominates all the nodes in P. | |

For any nesting of cycles discovered by the implementation-defined | |

DFS, consider the smallest cycle C which contains P. For the sake | |

of contradiction, assume that D is in C. Then the header H of C | |

cannot be in P, since the header of a cycle cannot be dominated by | |

any other node in the cycle. Thus, P is in the set (C-H), and there | |

must be a smaller cycle C' in C which also contains P, but that | |

contradicts how we chose C. | |

3. If a closed path P contains nodes U1 and U2 but not their | |

dominators D1 and D2 respectively, then there exists a cycle C that | |

contains U1 and U2 but neither of D1 and D2. | |

**Proof:** From the above properties, each D1 and D2 separately | |

dominate every node in P. There exists a cycle C1 (respectively, | |

C2) that contains P but not D1 (respectively, D2). Either C1 and C2 | |

are the same cycle, or one of them is nested inside the other. | |

Hence there is always a cycle that contains U1 and U2 but neither | |

of D1 and D2. | |

.. _cycle-closed-path-header: | |

4. In any cycle hierarchy, the header ``H`` of the smallest cycle | |

``C`` containing a closed path ``P`` itself lies on ``P``. | |

**Proof:** If ``H`` is not in ``P``, then there is a smaller cycle | |

``C'`` in the set ``C - H`` containing ``P``, thus contradicting | |

the claim that ``C`` is the smallest such cycle. | |

.. _cycle-reducible-headers: | |

Reducible Cycle Headers | |

======================= | |

Although the cycle hierarchy depends on the DFS chosen, reducible | |

cycles satisfy the following invariant: | |

If a reducible cycle ``C`` with header ``H`` is discovered in any | |

DFS, then there exists a cycle ``C'`` in every DFS with header | |

``H``, that contains ``C``. | |

**Proof:** For a closed path ``P`` in ``C`` that passes through ``H``, | |

every cycle hierarchy has a smallest cycle ``C'`` containing ``P`` and | |

whose header is in ``P``. Since ``H`` is the only entry to ``P``, | |

``H`` must be the header of ``C'``. Since headers uniquely define | |

cycles, ``C'`` contains every such closed path ``P``, and hence ``C'`` | |

contains ``C``. |