[libc++] Add an option to disable wide character support in libc++

Some embedded platforms do not wish to support the C library functionality
for handling wchar_t because they have no use for it. It makes sense for
libc++ to work properly on those platforms, so this commit adds a carve-out
of functionality for wchar_t.

Unfortunately, unlike some other carve-outs (e.g. random device), this
patch touches several parts of the library. However, despite the wide
impact of this patch, I still think it is important to support this
configuration since it makes it much simpler to port libc++ to some
embedded platforms.

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D111265

GitOrigin-RevId: f4c1258d5633fcf06385ff3fd1f4bf57ab971964
612 files changed