Flang is a ground-up implementation of a Fortran front end written in modern C++. It started off as the f18 project (https://github.com/flang-compiler/f18) with an aim to replace the previous flang project (https://github.com/flang-compiler/flang) and address its various deficiencies. F18 was subsequently accepted into the LLVM project and rechristened as Flang.
Please note that flang is not ready yet for production usage.
Treatment of language extensions is covered in this document.
To understand the compilers handling of intrinsics, see the discussion of intrinsics.
To understand how a flang program communicates with libraries at runtime, see the discussion of runtime descriptors.
If you are interested in writing new documentation, follow LLVM's Markdown style guide.
Consult the Getting Started with Flang for information on building and running flang.