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//===- lib/ReaderWriter/MachO/GOTPass.cpp -----------------------*- C++ -*-===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
/// \file
/// This linker pass transforms all GOT kind references to real references.
/// That is, in assembly you can write something like:
/// movq foo@GOTPCREL(%rip), %rax
/// which means you want to load a pointer to "foo" out of the GOT (global
/// Offsets Table). In the object file, the Atom containing this instruction
/// has a Reference whose target is an Atom named "foo" and the Reference
/// kind is a GOT load. The linker needs to instantiate a pointer sized
/// GOT entry. This is done be creating a GOT Atom to represent that pointer
/// sized data in this pass, and altering the Atom graph so the Reference now
/// points to the GOT Atom entry (corresponding to "foo") and changing the
/// Reference Kind to reflect it is now pointing to a GOT entry (rather
/// then needing a GOT entry).
/// There is one optimization the linker can do here. If the target of the GOT
/// is in the same linkage unit and does not need to be interposable, and
/// the GOT use is just a load (not some other operation), this pass can
/// transform that load into an LEA (add). This optimizes away one memory load
/// which at runtime that could stall the pipeline. This optimization only
/// works for architectures in which a (GOT) load instruction can be change to
/// an LEA instruction that is the same size. The method isGOTAccess() should
/// only return true for "canBypassGOT" if this optimization is supported.
#include "ArchHandler.h"
#include "File.h"
#include "MachOPasses.h"
#include "lld/Common/LLVM.h"
#include "lld/Core/DefinedAtom.h"
#include "lld/Core/File.h"
#include "lld/Core/Reference.h"
#include "lld/Core/Simple.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/DenseMap.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/STLExtras.h"
namespace lld {
namespace mach_o {
// GOT Entry Atom created by the GOT pass.
class GOTEntryAtom : public SimpleDefinedAtom {
GOTEntryAtom(const File &file, bool is64, StringRef name)
: SimpleDefinedAtom(file), _is64(is64), _name(name) { }
~GOTEntryAtom() override = default;
ContentType contentType() const override {
return DefinedAtom::typeGOT;
Alignment alignment() const override {
return _is64 ? 8 : 4;
uint64_t size() const override {
return _is64 ? 8 : 4;
ContentPermissions permissions() const override {
return DefinedAtom::permRW_;
ArrayRef<uint8_t> rawContent() const override {
static const uint8_t zeros[] =
{ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
return llvm::makeArrayRef(zeros, size());
StringRef slotName() const {
return _name;
const bool _is64;
StringRef _name;
/// Pass for instantiating and optimizing GOT slots.
class GOTPass : public Pass {
GOTPass(const MachOLinkingContext &context)
: _ctx(context), _archHandler(_ctx.archHandler()),
_file(*_ctx.make_file<MachOFile>("<mach-o GOT Pass>")) {
llvm::Error perform(SimpleFile &mergedFile) override {
// Scan all references in all atoms.
for (const DefinedAtom *atom : mergedFile.defined()) {
for (const Reference *ref : *atom) {
// Look at instructions accessing the GOT.
bool canBypassGOT;
if (!_archHandler.isGOTAccess(*ref, canBypassGOT))
const Atom *target = ref->target();
assert(target != nullptr);
if (!shouldReplaceTargetWithGOTAtom(target, canBypassGOT)) {
// Update reference kind to reflect that target is a direct access.
_archHandler.updateReferenceToGOT(ref, false);
} else {
// Replace the target with a reference to a GOT entry.
const DefinedAtom *gotEntry = makeGOTEntry(target);
const_cast<Reference *>(ref)->setTarget(gotEntry);
// Update reference kind to reflect that target is now a GOT entry.
_archHandler.updateReferenceToGOT(ref, true);
// Sort and add all created GOT Atoms to master file
std::vector<const GOTEntryAtom *> entries;
for (auto &it : _targetToGOT)
std::sort(entries.begin(), entries.end(),
[](const GOTEntryAtom *left, const GOTEntryAtom *right) {
return (left->slotName().compare(right->slotName()) < 0);
for (const GOTEntryAtom *slot : entries)
return llvm::Error::success();
bool shouldReplaceTargetWithGOTAtom(const Atom *target, bool canBypassGOT) {
// Accesses to shared library symbols must go through GOT.
if (isa<SharedLibraryAtom>(target))
return true;
// Accesses to interposable symbols in same linkage unit must also go
// through GOT.
const DefinedAtom *defTarget = dyn_cast<DefinedAtom>(target);
if (defTarget != nullptr &&
defTarget->interposable() != DefinedAtom::interposeNo) {
assert(defTarget->scope() != DefinedAtom::scopeTranslationUnit);
return true;
// Target does not require indirection. So, if instruction allows GOT to be
// by-passed, do that optimization and don't create GOT entry.
return !canBypassGOT;
const DefinedAtom *makeGOTEntry(const Atom *target) {
auto pos = _targetToGOT.find(target);
if (pos == _targetToGOT.end()) {
auto *gotEntry = new (_file.allocator())
GOTEntryAtom(_file, _ctx.is64Bit(), target->name());
_targetToGOT[target] = gotEntry;
const ArchHandler::ReferenceInfo &nlInfo = _archHandler.stubInfo().
gotEntry->addReference(Reference::KindNamespace::mach_o, nlInfo.arch,
nlInfo.kind, 0, target, 0);
return gotEntry;
return pos->second;
const MachOLinkingContext &_ctx;
mach_o::ArchHandler &_archHandler;
MachOFile &_file;
llvm::DenseMap<const Atom*, const GOTEntryAtom*> _targetToGOT;
void addGOTPass(PassManager &pm, const MachOLinkingContext &ctx) {
} // end namespace mach_o
} // end namespace lld