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//=== Taint.cpp - Taint tracking and basic propagation rules. ------*- C++ -*-//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// Defines basic, non-domain-specific mechanisms for tracking tainted values.
#include "Taint.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/BugReporter/BugReporter.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/ProgramStateTrait.h"
using namespace clang;
using namespace ento;
using namespace taint;
// Fully tainted symbols.
// Partially tainted symbols.
REGISTER_MAP_WITH_PROGRAMSTATE(DerivedSymTaint, SymbolRef, TaintedSubRegions)
void taint::printTaint(ProgramStateRef State, raw_ostream &Out, const char *NL,
const char *Sep) {
TaintMapTy TM = State->get<TaintMap>();
if (!TM.isEmpty())
Out << "Tainted symbols:" << NL;
for (const auto &I : TM)
Out << I.first << " : " << I.second << NL;
void dumpTaint(ProgramStateRef State) {
printTaint(State, llvm::errs());
ProgramStateRef taint::addTaint(ProgramStateRef State, const Stmt *S,
const LocationContext *LCtx,
TaintTagType Kind) {
return addTaint(State, State->getSVal(S, LCtx), Kind);
ProgramStateRef taint::addTaint(ProgramStateRef State, SVal V,
TaintTagType Kind) {
SymbolRef Sym = V.getAsSymbol();
if (Sym)
return addTaint(State, Sym, Kind);
// If the SVal represents a structure, try to mass-taint all values within the
// structure. For now it only works efficiently on lazy compound values that
// were conjured during a conservative evaluation of a function - either as
// return values of functions that return structures or arrays by value, or as
// values of structures or arrays passed into the function by reference,
// directly or through pointer aliasing. Such lazy compound values are
// characterized by having exactly one binding in their captured store within
// their parent region, which is a conjured symbol default-bound to the base
// region of the parent region.
if (auto LCV = V.getAs<nonloc::LazyCompoundVal>()) {
if (Optional<SVal> binding =
.getDefaultBinding(*LCV)) {
if (SymbolRef Sym = binding->getAsSymbol())
return addPartialTaint(State, Sym, LCV->getRegion(), Kind);
const MemRegion *R = V.getAsRegion();
return addTaint(State, R, Kind);
ProgramStateRef taint::addTaint(ProgramStateRef State, const MemRegion *R,
TaintTagType Kind) {
if (const SymbolicRegion *SR = dyn_cast_or_null<SymbolicRegion>(R))
return addTaint(State, SR->getSymbol(), Kind);
return State;
ProgramStateRef taint::addTaint(ProgramStateRef State, SymbolRef Sym,
TaintTagType Kind) {
// If this is a symbol cast, remove the cast before adding the taint. Taint
// is cast agnostic.
while (const SymbolCast *SC = dyn_cast<SymbolCast>(Sym))
Sym = SC->getOperand();
ProgramStateRef NewState = State->set<TaintMap>(Sym, Kind);
return NewState;
ProgramStateRef taint::addPartialTaint(ProgramStateRef State,
SymbolRef ParentSym,
const SubRegion *SubRegion,
TaintTagType Kind) {
// Ignore partial taint if the entire parent symbol is already tainted.
if (const TaintTagType *T = State->get<TaintMap>(ParentSym))
if (*T == Kind)
return State;
// Partial taint applies if only a portion of the symbol is tainted.
if (SubRegion == SubRegion->getBaseRegion())
return addTaint(State, ParentSym, Kind);
const TaintedSubRegions *SavedRegs = State->get<DerivedSymTaint>(ParentSym);
TaintedSubRegions::Factory &F = State->get_context<TaintedSubRegions>();
TaintedSubRegions Regs = SavedRegs ? *SavedRegs : F.getEmptyMap();
Regs = F.add(Regs, SubRegion, Kind);
ProgramStateRef NewState = State->set<DerivedSymTaint>(ParentSym, Regs);
return NewState;
bool taint::isTainted(ProgramStateRef State, const Stmt *S,
const LocationContext *LCtx, TaintTagType Kind) {
SVal val = State->getSVal(S, LCtx);
return isTainted(State, val, Kind);
bool taint::isTainted(ProgramStateRef State, SVal V, TaintTagType Kind) {
if (const SymExpr *Sym = V.getAsSymExpr())
return isTainted(State, Sym, Kind);
if (const MemRegion *Reg = V.getAsRegion())
return isTainted(State, Reg, Kind);
return false;
bool taint::isTainted(ProgramStateRef State, const MemRegion *Reg,
TaintTagType K) {
if (!Reg)
return false;
// Element region (array element) is tainted if either the base or the offset
// are tainted.
if (const ElementRegion *ER = dyn_cast<ElementRegion>(Reg))
return isTainted(State, ER->getSuperRegion(), K) ||
isTainted(State, ER->getIndex(), K);
if (const SymbolicRegion *SR = dyn_cast<SymbolicRegion>(Reg))
return isTainted(State, SR->getSymbol(), K);
if (const SubRegion *ER = dyn_cast<SubRegion>(Reg))
return isTainted(State, ER->getSuperRegion(), K);
return false;
bool taint::isTainted(ProgramStateRef State, SymbolRef Sym, TaintTagType Kind) {
if (!Sym)
return false;
// Traverse all the symbols this symbol depends on to see if any are tainted.
for (SymExpr::symbol_iterator SI = Sym->symbol_begin(),
SE = Sym->symbol_end(); SI != SE; ++SI) {
if (!isa<SymbolData>(*SI))
if (const TaintTagType *Tag = State->get<TaintMap>(*SI)) {
if (*Tag == Kind)
return true;
if (const auto *SD = dyn_cast<SymbolDerived>(*SI)) {
// If this is a SymbolDerived with a tainted parent, it's also tainted.
if (isTainted(State, SD->getParentSymbol(), Kind))
return true;
// If this is a SymbolDerived with the same parent symbol as another
// tainted SymbolDerived and a region that's a sub-region of that tainted
// symbol, it's also tainted.
if (const TaintedSubRegions *Regs =
State->get<DerivedSymTaint>(SD->getParentSymbol())) {
const TypedValueRegion *R = SD->getRegion();
for (auto I : *Regs) {
// FIXME: The logic to identify tainted regions could be more
// complete. For example, this would not currently identify
// overlapping fields in a union as tainted. To identify this we can
// check for overlapping/nested byte offsets.
if (Kind == I.second && R->isSubRegionOf(I.first))
return true;
// If memory region is tainted, data is also tainted.
if (const auto *SRV = dyn_cast<SymbolRegionValue>(*SI)) {
if (isTainted(State, SRV->getRegion(), Kind))
return true;
// If this is a SymbolCast from a tainted value, it's also tainted.
if (const auto *SC = dyn_cast<SymbolCast>(*SI)) {
if (isTainted(State, SC->getOperand(), Kind))
return true;
return false;
PathDiagnosticPieceRef TaintBugVisitor::VisitNode(const ExplodedNode *N,
BugReporterContext &BRC,
PathSensitiveBugReport &BR) {
// Find the ExplodedNode where the taint was first introduced
if (!isTainted(N->getState(), V) ||
isTainted(N->getFirstPred()->getState(), V))
return nullptr;
const Stmt *S = N->getStmtForDiagnostics();
if (!S)
return nullptr;
const LocationContext *NCtx = N->getLocationContext();
PathDiagnosticLocation L =
PathDiagnosticLocation::createBegin(S, BRC.getSourceManager(), NCtx);
if (!L.isValid() || !L.asLocation().isValid())
return nullptr;
return std::make_shared<PathDiagnosticEventPiece>(L, "Taint originated here");