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//===- EnumCastOutOfRangeChecker.cpp ---------------------------*- C++ -*--===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// The EnumCastOutOfRangeChecker is responsible for checking integer to
// enumeration casts that could result in undefined values. This could happen
// if the value that we cast from is out of the value range of the enumeration.
// Reference:
// [ISO/IEC 14882-2014] ISO/IEC 14882-2014.
// Programming Languages — C++, Fourth Edition. 2014.
// C++ Standard, [dcl.enum], in paragraph 8, which defines the range of an enum
// C++ Standard, [expr.static.cast], paragraph 10, which defines the behaviour
// of casting an integer value that is out of range
// SEI CERT C++ Coding Standard, INT50-CPP. Do not cast to an out-of-range
// enumeration value
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers/BuiltinCheckerRegistration.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/BugReporter/BugType.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/CheckerContext.h"
using namespace clang;
using namespace ento;
namespace {
// This evaluator checks two SVals for equality. The first SVal is provided via
// the constructor, the second is the parameter of the overloaded () operator.
// It uses the in-built ConstraintManager to resolve the equlity to possible or
// not possible ProgramStates.
class ConstraintBasedEQEvaluator {
const DefinedOrUnknownSVal CompareValue;
const ProgramStateRef PS;
SValBuilder &SVB;
ConstraintBasedEQEvaluator(CheckerContext &C,
const DefinedOrUnknownSVal CompareValue)
: CompareValue(CompareValue), PS(C.getState()), SVB(C.getSValBuilder()) {}
bool operator()(const llvm::APSInt &EnumDeclInitValue) {
DefinedOrUnknownSVal EnumDeclValue = SVB.makeIntVal(EnumDeclInitValue);
DefinedOrUnknownSVal ElemEqualsValueToCast =
SVB.evalEQ(PS, EnumDeclValue, CompareValue);
return static_cast<bool>(PS->assume(ElemEqualsValueToCast, true));
// This checker checks CastExpr statements.
// If the value provided to the cast is one of the values the enumeration can
// represent, the said value matches the enumeration. If the checker can
// establish the impossibility of matching it gives a warning.
// Being conservative, it does not warn if there is slight possibility the
// value can be matching.
class EnumCastOutOfRangeChecker : public Checker<check::PreStmt<CastExpr>> {
mutable std::unique_ptr<BuiltinBug> EnumValueCastOutOfRange;
void reportWarning(CheckerContext &C) const;
void checkPreStmt(const CastExpr *CE, CheckerContext &C) const;
using EnumValueVector = llvm::SmallVector<llvm::APSInt, 6>;
// Collects all of the values an enum can represent (as SVals).
EnumValueVector getDeclValuesForEnum(const EnumDecl *ED) {
EnumValueVector DeclValues(
std::distance(ED->enumerator_begin(), ED->enumerator_end()));
llvm::transform(ED->enumerators(), DeclValues.begin(),
[](const EnumConstantDecl *D) { return D->getInitVal(); });
return DeclValues;
} // namespace
void EnumCastOutOfRangeChecker::reportWarning(CheckerContext &C) const {
if (const ExplodedNode *N = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode()) {
if (!EnumValueCastOutOfRange)
new BuiltinBug(this, "Enum cast out of range",
"The value provided to the cast expression is not in "
"the valid range of values for the enum"));
*EnumValueCastOutOfRange, EnumValueCastOutOfRange->getDescription(),
void EnumCastOutOfRangeChecker::checkPreStmt(const CastExpr *CE,
CheckerContext &C) const {
// Only perform enum range check on casts where such checks are valid. For
// all other cast kinds (where enum range checks are unnecessary or invalid),
// just return immediately. TODO: The set of casts whitelisted for enum
// range checking may be incomplete. Better to add a missing cast kind to
// enable a missing check than to generate false negatives and have to remove
// those later.
switch (CE->getCastKind()) {
case CK_IntegralCast:
// Get the value of the expression to cast.
const llvm::Optional<DefinedOrUnknownSVal> ValueToCast =
// If the value cannot be reasoned about (not even a DefinedOrUnknownSVal),
// don't analyze further.
if (!ValueToCast)
const QualType T = CE->getType();
// Check whether the cast type is an enum.
if (!T->isEnumeralType())
// If the cast is an enum, get its declaration.
// If the isEnumeralType() returned true, then the declaration must exist
// even if it is a stub declaration. It is up to the getDeclValuesForEnum()
// function to handle this.
const EnumDecl *ED = T->castAs<EnumType>()->getDecl();
EnumValueVector DeclValues = getDeclValuesForEnum(ED);
// Check if any of the enum values possibly match.
bool PossibleValueMatch = llvm::any_of(
DeclValues, ConstraintBasedEQEvaluator(C, *ValueToCast));
// If there is no value that can possibly match any of the enum values, then
// warn.
if (!PossibleValueMatch)
void ento::registerEnumCastOutOfRangeChecker(CheckerManager &mgr) {
bool ento::shouldRegisterEnumCastOutOfRangeChecker(const LangOptions &LO) {
return true;